L'ENERGIA E L'AMBIENTE
VALUTAZIONE
DEL COSTO ENERGETICO
DEGLI SPORT
DI COMBATTIMENTO IN
.REMOTE SENSINGm
PROGRESS REPORT 8
New trends in the judo and wrestling
Biomechanics research
A. SACRIPANTI

E.N.E.A. Direzione centrale Sicurezza e Protezione Sanitaria
Coordinatore Federazione Italiana Lotta, Pesi, Judo
M. FAINA, G. GUIDI

C.O.N.I. Istituto Scienze dello Sport
Dipartimertto di Fisiologia e biomeccanica

(Direttore Scientifico A. DAL MONTE)
RIASSUNTO
1.  INTRODUCTION
2.  HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
3.  DESCRIPTIQN OF EXPERIENCES
4.  APPENDIX
5.  B.IBLIOGRAPHY
1. INTRODUCTION
~l
l
l
processing methods and instruments provided by ENEA and
finally to athletes and to the technical and specialized
knowledge in the physical biomechanics by FILPJ.
1 i/ The "simple" idea is td consider athletes as complex
I I thermal machines. The joint application of the principles of
I
l
thermodynamics must allows us consequently to statistically
i assess the average work carried out by athletes during
i! competition.
Obviosly, from a theoretical point of view, the
problem could be rapidly solved if it was possible to
i evaluate the athletesf direct calorimetry during their
performance. Since this is technically impossible, it is
f
1
common practice in sport to assess the athletefs work by
means o,$ the "simpler" indirect calorimetry.
i
i r' This means that through an appropriate mechanical
I equivalent o£ the oxygen we can trace back  through the fuel
i
t
kinetics  the work carried out in laboratory which, for many
sports, is made day by day more similar to the efiective
f competitive load. In our time, in the case of fighting sports
I the few experimental data are indeed limited and it is
virtually impossible to extrapolate reliable data from these
laboratory results which can allow an adequate training based
on scientific principles.
The retracing of direct calorimetry by means of the
r
energy equations of the manenvironment heat exchange is
therefore possible. Doing so the athletefs body superficial
average temperature needs to be directly reckoned, because
al1 heat transfers are regulated by it.
On the basis of the athletesl heatenergy emission recorded
by remote sensing techniques, or retraced by energy exchange
equations, more reliable quantitative data can be obtained on
the competition without affecting the performace.
1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND . .
3. DESCRIPTION OF EXPERIENCES
Fig. 1
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FOV istantaneo ,(
II O 2m :m I Om 100m
Distanza I , I
Sistema Videotermografico
Fig. 3
intake, detected telemetrically by a sophisticated CONI
instrument (Cosmed K2 system  fig. 9 ) , by means of an
athlete placed on an engine conveyor belt running at costant
speed for a given time period (fig. 10.). This was possible
through the application of the thermodyfidimic principle of the
energy conservation which states,~ for athletes under
conditions of vitually neglegible "physicaln work and aerobic
"steadystate", that the oxygen uptake and thermal emissiop
were roughly equal. Alledgedly, the used technologies
allowed, for the first time, to follow the evolution of
kinetics of both phenomena (oxygen input and radiation
output), thereby enabling us to try to find the functional
relation linking them. Considering the biochemical origin of
the athleters metabolic *energy  for the aerobic
"steadystate" conditions  it was possible to associate 
with a good degree of approximation  the oxygen ineut and
the heat output by means of a simple relation; whereas the
relation connecting the anaerobiclactacid energy sources
with the heat output is more complex and still unknown. In
this respect, the first functional links are being attempted
during experiments.
A further step was to provide the attempt to measure
the kinetics of the "athletets superficial average
temperature" by direct methods. For this purpose a set of 16
thermocouples, with special calibration, was used and
suitably placed on the athletefs body (fig. 11 ) ; the data
mesured in rea1 time were recorded on magnetic tape HP data
logger 3497A and the average temperature was computed by
HP9816A computer, with the Hardy, du ~ o i s and Soderstrom
formula:
Tp = (0.07 T1 + 0.14 T2 + 0.05 T3 + 0.07 T4 + 0.13 T5 +
. + 0.19 T6 + 0.35 T7)
where T1 trough T7 are head, arms, hands, feet, legs, thigs
and trunk average temperatures and the coefficients (which
sum is one) are 'the mean weighted surfaces bodyts parts. The
knowledge of kinetics of the average superf icial temperature
let us intercalibrate them, with oxygen input and thermal
infrared output, to obtain the first gross intercomparison of
instruments.
The next two steps (fig.12) were related first to the
rough extimation of Judogi shielding 'ef fect, against thermal
longwave infrared emission (in the CONI laboratories in
ROME) and afterwards to the quantitative evaluation of this
efect (performing the experiment in a climatic chamber,
assembled in theSENEACASACCIA laboratories  fig. 13 ), to
have more reliable data from a better controlleà experimental
situation.
At the same time the theoretical knowled'ge about
competition was improved with the first physicalmathemat.ica1
theory of Judo contest to state and carry out the most
important physical parameters and to have a first rough
extimation of average energy expenditure in competition. For
the mean kinetic energy of couple of athletest system,
related tothe absolute velocity, changing the Einsteints
relation the result was 0.2 of overall oxygen consumption.
This problem is discussed in the appendix.
The last but one experiment carried out was the fiist
of the larger series in pragress and was related to study the
oxygen input partition in heat emission and physical work.
The physical work, lifting up and down 40 Kg, was separate in
two phases: "negativen (pulling down) ,and "positive" (lifting
_.
up) against the gravity force  fig.6 This differentia3ion
is necessary because, if the total physical work, being
cyclic, in conservative field will be zero, 'the athletes'
rating perforwnces are different in eaqh of the two paths.
The last one experiment m s connected to study
different kind of work (a predefined physical work'of 150 J/s
using a cycloergometers with two definite numbers of thrusts
on pedals  fig. I  ) and, in the same session by two
thermocameras, to define the work related to some throwing
techniques (one technique of couple and oneof physical lever
at frequence of 20 throwings a minute  fig.3).
The theoretical approch is concerned with equdfions ..
describing, in forecasting form, the sweating kinetics of
athletes. These thermodynamical equations, not c&npletely
known or tested, are very important for studying energy
exchanges between athletes and external environment.
The problem is to modelize simultaneously heat and
mass transier as evaporation by natura1 convection and mass
. tranfer by diffusion, throbgh integuments, in transient heat
balance during exercise as function of free atmosphere
temperature, vapor pressure, atmspheric pressur,bodyfs
dimensions and equivalent temperature.
At the present time the problem is not completely
solved, but some approximative solutions are ready and will
be used in the condictions of negligible physical work,
during which energy input is equa1 to &nergy output, unless
higher rank negligible factors, The use is in an iterative
Fig. 4
Athlete's Thermografhic Image
Fig. 6
Experience with Phisical Work
Fig. 7 AB
Experience with Cycloergometer
Fig. 8
Judo Throwing Techniques
Fig. 9
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Fig. 13
program running on VAX 8800 computer to obtain the best
approximation of the main parameters.
4. APPENDIX
Theoreticalphysicalbiomechanical analysis is a
powerful method of investigation which, when fully used,
allows analytically difficult problem to be sqlved with
simple and somewhat elegant means. Its basic instruments are
differential analysis and structural synthesis. The former
consists of dividing the technical performance into severa1
categories (e.9.: holds, posture, unbalance, throw, ect.); if
we are to understand in a direct way the problems relating to
the correct use of propulsive forces into space, the above
division prove to be a useful semplification. The latter
consists of the phase through which, the semplified
mechanisms or the correlated subsets of technical performance
are reinterpreted as a whole. Later, this method will be
applied to define contest and interaction in it (throwings).
The comparative study through differential analysis
and structural syntesis will be carried out on a
consecutivephase basis (fig. 14).
In order to obtain analytical proof of the contest as
motion and interaction, reference must be made to definitions
o£ : "biomechanical athlete" and,@lcoupleof athletes" system,
they being the basic preliminary step whereby such a goal may
be reached. Therefore, with the due approximation, we shall
define the biomechanical athlete as a solid of varying
geometry and of cylindrical symmetry, that may assume
different positions, normally placed in conditions of
unstable equilibrium in the gravitational iield on a plane
area with friction, who through the articular joints is abPe
to perform only certain rotations.
The biomechanical athlete, thus defined, may assume a
wide range of positions, called,"postures": each of these
will be accomplished by the "fixation" and immobilization of
the skeletal segments in a given position expressed as
"aptitude" o£ the wole body to maintain through time such a
marked state of equilibrium. Whereas the "structure" is able
to perform only determined rotations through the articular
joints, the execution of translations is made possible only
under the condition that the sum. of the angles of the
relative articular rotations would be zero.
The "couple of athletes" system may be defined in
Sviluppo dell'analisi
biomeccanica.
Gesto sportivo:
tecnica In piedi
i
l' Applica.zione della . 1
relatfvita galileiana
I
l
generale
Fig. 1 4
physical terms, with' the due approximation, as an articulated
system of cylindrical symmetry, placed in the gravitational
field in stable equilibrium on a plane area with friction,
formed by the semirigid union of two biomechanical athletes.
The aim of the semplifications introduced in the
preceding definitions is to facilitate the mathematical
handling of this issue, it falling under the sphere of
classica1 mechanics.
It is important to note that the ncouple of athletes"
may be regarded as a whole system upon which acts only one
external force (gravity force) annuled by mat reaction, and
that it may shifts or changes its interna1 setup, under push
and pull force only on account of the existence of friction.
Very generally, in i~teraction (throwing techiqhes),
the analysis as above may be performed under "static
conditionsn, that is at zero shifting system velocity or
"absolute velocity", since the results obtained will be, with
verry good approximation, applicable also to the condition
relating to contest, effective average velocity between
0.51.2 Km/h.
In fact on the basis of Galileots Principle of
Relativity, according to which the functional relations in
mechanics are equally valid both for an immobile system, and
for a system in uniform linear motion with respect to this,
the two treatment will be equivalent.
Therefore  for rather selfevident conveniencerelated
reasons, it is preferable to treat the mechanical problem of
the intraction (throwing techniques) in the condition of
greatest semplicity.
The mode1 and the characterization of the generic
motion of the "couple of athletes" system  developed thanks
to the specific techniques of the statical mechanics 9
BEJAN A.
"Heat TranferBased Reconstruction of the Concepts and
Laws of Classica1 Thermodynaricsn
Journal of Heat Transfer vol. 110 (1988)
CLARK R. P.
"Human Skin ~emperatureand Convective Heat Lossn
ELSGOLC
"Calculus of variations"
Pergarnon Press N.Y.1961
FOWLER
"~tatisticalmechanics"
Cambridge 1936
J.P. FUNK
"Direct measurement of radiative heat exchange of the
human body"
NATURE February 29,1964
GRUCZA R.
"Body .Heat Balance in.Han Subjected to Endogenous and
Exogenous Heat Load"
51:419433
KHINCHIN
"Hathematical fundations of Statistica1 Hechanics"
Dover N.Y.1949
KURT
.
"Axiomatics of Statkstical H e c h a n i c ~
Pergarnon Press N.Y. 1960
A. SACRIPANTI
"Biomeccanica del judon
Ed. Mediteranee 1989
WAX
"Selected papers on Noise and Statistica1 Processes".
Dover N.Y. 1954
WHITTARKER
"A Treatise on the Anaiytical Dynamics of Particles
and.Rigid Bodies"
Cambridge Univ. Press 1937