Date   

trouble with Firefox 57

marvin kotler
 

Good morning list; first, running windows 10 bill 1703 and jaws 2018.  Been using Firefox for quite some time with no issues; now, my machine updated Firefox to 57 or whatever it is and I cannot read anything and my computer restarts a lot.  Does anyone know how to resolve these issues or do I need to go to another browser; any advice would be appreciated.
Marv


Re: Contact

 

Yes, works fine with Jaws. Do you mean you couldn't enable screenshots or you couldn't set up OneDrive at all?
Here is how I enable the screenshots:

1. Jaws Key+F11 to bring up the sys tray items, arrow to OneDrive and press enter
2. Arrow down to Settings and press enter, for some reason sometimes this just puts me back at the top of the menu and I have to arrow to Settings a second time and press enter, then Settings opens.
3. I am always in the Account tab on "Add Account" so I do a Shift+tab to get to the tabs and they are as follows (I use speech history from here on):

Settings Tab Account Tab Auto Save Tab Network Tab Office Tab About Tab
Account Tab - just did a "say word" to show what has focus
Auto Save Tab - just did a right arrow to go there
Now I tab and it reads the items in the Auto Save tab, the first items, Pictures and Documents have two options, "OneDrive" or "This PC Only"
Note, however, that I believe these options only exist with Windows 10 when you are logged in with a Microsoft account, on my Windows 7 PC it goes straight to the "save pictures automatically" item for when you connect a phone or USB stick.
As you can see the last item before you get to "OK" is the checkbox for automatically capture screenshots to OneDrive.
Desktop, Documents and Pictures Pictures Combo box
This PC only
2 of 2
Desktop, Documents and Pictures Combo box
Documents
This PC only
2 of 2
Photos and videos Automatically save photos and videos to OneDrive whenever I connect a camera, phone, or other device to my PC check box not checked
Screenshots Automatically save screenshots I capture to OneDrive check box checked
OK Button


Regards,
Sieghard

-----Original Message-----
From: main@jfw.groups.io [mailto:main@jfw.groups.io] On Behalf Of Jonas Voll
Sent: Friday, November 17, 2017 5:00 AM
To: main@jfw.groups.io
Subject: Re: Contact

I was not able to get OneDrive Working was you able to sett it up using Jaws?
I have an Microsoft account!
Jonas Voll
Support Technician I
Envision, Inc.
2301 S Water ST
Wichita, KS 67213
O: 316-425-7141
F: 316-267-4312
www.envisionus.com

Envision: To improve the quality of life and provide inspiration for the blind and visually impaired through employment, outreach, rehabilitation, education and research.

-----Original Message-----
From: main@jfw.groups.io [mailto:main@jfw.groups.io] On Behalf Of Sieghard Weitzel
Sent: Friday, November 17, 2017 6:31 AM
To: main@jfw.groups.io
Subject: Re: Contact

If you use either Dropbox or OneDrive then the easiest way is to enable screenshots in one of those services. Then simply pressing PrintScreen will take a screenshot and save it to a folder of your choosing as a PNG file.

-----Original Message-----
From: main@jfw.groups.io [mailto:main@jfw.groups.io] On Behalf Of Ibrahim Ajayi
Sent: Thursday, November 16, 2017 8:38 AM
To: main@jfw.groups.io
Subject: Contact

Hi good people:
I joined the group not too long ago, but I've not been posting.
I sent a post two days ago, wanting to know if anyone had solutions to the problem I am having with my web browser firefox and JAWS. From the responses I read to other people's posts, I learnt that the problem is a general problem. It is a problem that appears to defy solutions for now.
I have new issues, which I will like fellow members to please kindly help me address.
I am having problems with screenshots. When I do a screenshot of a web page using the print screen key on my laptop, and copy and paste it into the pint submenu, and subsequently send it, I am informed by the receipient that the screenshot is not visible. I've tried it several times, and the problem remains the same. I use firefox with it. I also use JAWS 16.
Please how can I fix this problem of screenshots not being visible.
What can I do to make the screenshots visible.
Added to this, does anyone use snagit from techsmith? how is it used to do a screenshot of a webpage.
Looking forward to reading from you chaps.
I am Ibrahim Ajayi.







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Re: What is the trick with multiple attachments in outlook 2010?

mike mcglashon
 

I am good till your last step;

For when I do the following,

5. Follow the prompts to save. Then press the OK dialog.

This should save all attachments in the message.

 

This doesn’t work, for when I do this last step,

I get an error saying something like

“file or directory name not valid” and it doesn’t let me save them all,

Am ok if I do only one but the minute I try to do them all, I get the error.

 

 

From: main@jfw.groups.io [mailto:main@jfw.groups.io] On Behalf Of Bill White
Sent: Friday, November 17, 2017 12:37 PM
To: main@jfw.groups.io
Subject: Re: What is the trick with multiple attachments in outlook 2010?

 

Hi, Shannon. I use Windows 10 with JAWS 2018. I am having no trouble reading multiple attachments with Outlook 2010. I do the following.

 

1. Open Outlook2010.

2. Shift TAB to the attachments list.

3. Use Right and Left Arrows to advance or go backward through the attachments list.

4. Press ALT + F, followed by M to save attachments.

5. Follow the prompts to save. Then press the OK dialog.

This should save all attachments in the message.

 

 

From: main@jfw.groups.io [mailto:main@jfw.groups.io] On Behalf Of Shannon
Sent: Friday, November 17, 2017 9:25 AM
To: main@jfw.groups.io
Subject: What is the trick with multiple attachments in outlook 2010?

 

Hi all,

0I know that I can alt tab from the top of the message into the attachments field but when there are multiple attachments to a message.  Jaws 18 and Jaws 2018 are having problem s arrowing to the other items in the list.

What is the trick?

Insert A does  not get me into the attachments list as the help says it will.

So what do I do?

 

Thanks

Shannon


Re: scrolling up a command window

John Covici
 

I am not necessarily trying to get command history, I just want to get
the previous lines in the window -- it might be something from
get-eventlog or whatever and this is where I get blank when I use the
scroll setting in the edit menu. I have another screen reader where I
can actually tap the scroll up arrow and it moves up one line in the
window, but I was trying to do this with JAWS.

On Sat, 18 Nov 2017 11:56:37 -0500,
David Bailes wrote:

[1 <text/plain; utf-8 (quoted-printable)>]
[2 <text/html; utf-8 (quoted-printable)>]
Hi John,
if you want to read previous lines, rather that scroll the window, you can just use up arrow (and the then use down arrow to read the next line, if required) Is this not working for you?
Note that if you want to go back a long way, you may need to increase the command history buffer size. To do this: press alt+spacebar to open the window's menu, and choose properties. On the options page of the dialog, you can change the
command history buffer size.

David.

David.

On Sat, Nov 18, 2017 at 08:07 am, John Covici wrote:

Unfortunately, your method yields blank when I use up or down arrow
after selecting scroll under edit.

Thanks again.

On Sat, 18 Nov 2017 05:28:54 -0500,
David Bailes wrote:

[1 <text/plain; utf-8 (quoted-printable)>]
[2 <text/html; utf-8 (quoted-printable)>]
Hi John,
there are a couple of ways of scrolling using the keyboard.
The first is to use page up/down.
The second provides finer adjustment. Press alt+spacebar to open the window's menu, open the edit sub menu, and choose scroll. You can now use up/down arrows to scroll. When you've finished scrolling, press Esc to return back to
the
normal mode.

David.

On Fri, Nov 17, 2017 at 07:17 pm, John Covici wrote:

Hi. Is there any way in JAWS to scroll up past whats on the current
command window -- I want to access the scroll up arrow at the top of
the window and the scroll down arrow at the bottom.

Thanks in advance for any suggestions.

--
Your life is like a penny. You're going to lose it. The question is:
How do
you spend it?

John Covici
covici@ccs.covici.com

--
Your life is like a penny. You're going to lose it. The question is:
How do
you spend it?

John Covici
covici@ccs.covici.com

--
Your life is like a penny. You're going to lose it. The question is:
How do
you spend it?

John Covici
covici@ccs.covici.com


Re: financing for jaws

David & his pack of dogs
 

Did I miss something? When I talked to Freedom they told me I could use my copy of JAWS on as many devices as I wanted providing I owned the device, I E, lap top or desktop.

-----Original Message-----
From: main@jfw.groups.io [mailto:main@jfw.groups.io] On Behalf Of Peter Donahue
Sent: November 18, 2017 8:21 AM
To: main@jfw.groups.io
Subject: Re: financing for jaws

Hello Jenni and everyone,

We were told the same thing. IN our case the cost would be around $400.00 per computer. Since there are two of us who use Jaws on multiple devices we need two copies so it's double what you were quoted.

Peter Donahue who along with wife Mary embraced various income-producing vehicles to keep up with the cost of buying and maintaining assistive technology.



-----Original Message-----
From: main@jfw.groups.io [mailto:main@jfw.groups.io] On Behalf Of Jenni Kent
Sent: Saturday, November 18, 2017 10:16 AM
To: main@jfw.groups.io
Subject: Re: financing for jaws

for both the upgrade and the sma its going to be $360 thats what they told me.


On 11/17/2017 6:42 PM, Randy Barnett wrote:
It should only cost you 120.00. 240.00 at most.
On 11/17/2017 4:38 PM, Jenni Kent wrote:
no i am on jaws 17


On 11/17/2017 4:40 PM, netbat66 wrote:
what version are you on now?
are you saying you are 6 upgrades behind?
a s m a is $200 for two pro jaws upgrades.
$120 for two home jaws upgrades.
check here.
https://www.freedomscientific.com/Products/UpgradeAndSMARenewal


-----Original Message----- From: Jenni Kent
Sent: Friday, November 17, 2017 1:21 PM
To: main@jfw.groups.io
Subject: financing for jaws

Hi,

I am trying to upgrade my jaws and get an sma I live in Iowa In
Missouri there was the tap-i program that paid for assistive tech
for you every few years so you could access the internet. Now I am
stuck because I need this and don't know a way to get it i wish fs
had a payment plan for jfw so people could pay for jaws and an sma I
could do that but this six hundred bucks all at once crap is
rediculous.










Re: scrolling up a command window

David Bailes
 

Hi John,
if you want to read previous lines, rather that scroll the window, you can just use up arrow (and the then use down arrow to read the next line, if required) Is this not working for you?
Note that if you want to go back a long way, you may need to increase the command history buffer size. To do this: press alt+spacebar to open the window's menu, and choose properties. On the options page of the dialog, you can change the command history buffer size.

David.

David.


On Sat, Nov 18, 2017 at 08:07 am, John Covici wrote:
Unfortunately, your method yields blank when I use up or down arrow
after selecting scroll under edit.

Thanks again.

On Sat, 18 Nov 2017 05:28:54 -0500,
David Bailes wrote:

[1 <text/plain; utf-8 (quoted-printable)>]
[2 <text/html; utf-8 (quoted-printable)>]
Hi John,
there are a couple of ways of scrolling using the keyboard.
The first is to use page up/down.
The second provides finer adjustment. Press alt+spacebar to open the window's menu, open the edit sub menu, and choose scroll. You can now use up/down arrows to scroll. When you've finished scrolling, press Esc to return back to the
normal mode.

David.

On Fri, Nov 17, 2017 at 07:17 pm, John Covici wrote:

Hi. Is there any way in JAWS to scroll up past whats on the current
command window -- I want to access the scroll up arrow at the top of
the window and the scroll down arrow at the bottom.

Thanks in advance for any suggestions.

--
Your life is like a penny. You're going to lose it. The question is:
How do
you spend it?

John Covici
covici@...

--
Your life is like a penny. You're going to lose it. The question is:
How do
you spend it?

John Covici
covici@...


Re: Crowd Funding

Carolyn Arnold <4carolyna@...>
 

I do know of a woman in California, who has used Crowd Funding to raise money for her Mom and sister in Houston, whose house was flooded in Hurricane Harvey. I am guessing that a special account has to be set up for the purpose, probably with a tax number, but since I have not had that particular business experience I do not know the details associated with it.

Best from,

Carolyn

-----Original Message-----
From: main@jfw.groups.io [mailto:main@jfw.groups.io] On Behalf Of Mike B.
Sent: Saturday, November 18, 2017 1:01 AM
To: main@jfw.groups.io
Subject: Re: Crowd Funding

Hi Peter,

I'm all for donating to & for people that truly need help, but this Crowd Funding thing you speak of is something I've never heard of, & that doesn't mean it doesn't exist, but it only means I've never heard anything about it! Who runs it? Who manages the donations? Does 100% of the donations go to the intended, or do they take a percentage off the top to cover costs, & is that info divulged? I've only asked a few questions, but you see my point. I personally am sick of donating to organizations that say that they will do this & that, but when it all comes down to it most of the money is eaten up by bullshit!

You said:
"If anyone wants to start calling widely used means of raising funds for personal or business matters begging watch your step with us! Otherwise you will be asked to cover the cost of buying my wife's El Braille 40 when it comes out and upgrading our versions of Jaws. End quote.

Intimidating people with this kind of dumb ass threat isn't going to put people in your corner! What are you going to do, use donated funds to sue people?!
Take care. Mike. Dodgers, try again next year!

Sent from my iBarstool.
Arguing with a woman is like reading a software license agreement. In the end you have to ignore everything, & click I agree.
----- Original Message -----
From: Peter Donahue <mailto:pdonahue2@satx.rr.com>
To: main@jfw.groups.io <mailto:main@jfw.groups.io>
Sent: Friday, November 17, 2017 7:44 PM
Subject: Crowd Funding


Good evening everyone,

CrowdFunding is widely used throughout many segments of society including those who are employed. It is not a form of begging and is not promoted as such. Rather it could be used as a way to raise public awareness of the existence of assistive technology and what users of this technology must do to cover the cost of keeping it up.

If folks can use crowd funding to raise money for needed surgery and treatments, funding to achieve educational and vocational goals and for many other purposes why not tap into this means of creating revenue to cover the cost of buying and maintaining assistive technology. Large corporations also use crowd funding to start and grow their existing business ventures or to start new ones. No one calls them beggars.

I used to hear this kind of garbage when I was a street performer. Those making such statements about this occupation are either dead, still broke and living on public assistance, or had to move back in with mmom and dad. Mary and I tapped into various means to raise funding for the things we need without going to voke rehab or some other public assistance program and are closer to achieving financial independence. If anyone wants to start calling widely used means of raising funds for personal or business matters begging watch your step with us! Otherwise you will be asked to cover the cost of buying my wife's El Braille 40 when it comes out and upgrading our versions of Jaws. Now let's tap the crowd to raise the needed funds for keeping our assistive technology and to raise awareness of how it can benefit those with disabilities including the blind. All the best.

Peter Donahue



-----Original Message-----
From: main@jfw.groups.io <mailto:main@jfw.groups.io> [mailto:main@jfw.groups.io] On Behalf Of Kelly Pierce
Sent: Friday, November 17, 2017 5:27 PM
To: main@jfw.groups.io <mailto:main@jfw.groups.io>
Subject: Re: financing for jaws, Why Not CrowdFunding?

Another way besides begging to raise needed funds is to find a job or start a small business. Computers and the Internet enable many to work at home.

Kelly
Another way besides begging to raise needed funds is to find a job or start a small business. Computers and the Internet enable many to work at home.

Kelly




On 11/17/17, Peter Donahue <pdonahue2@satx.rr.com <mailto:pdonahue2@satx.rr.com> > wrote:
Hello,

We're dealing with the same situation here. Perhaps it's time some of
us tried CrowdFunding as a way to raise needed funds to cover these expenses.
People raise funds for all kinds of personal and corporate projects
and individual needs this way. It's time we tapped the power of the
crowd to help us cover the cost of buying and upgrading assistive
technology as an alternative to voke rehab and other public funding
sources. We plan to launch our own crowdfunding site to upgrade our
assistive technology by year's end. If someone beats us to it that's wonderful! All the best.

Peter Donahue



-----Original Message-----
From: main@jfw.groups.io <mailto:main@jfw.groups.io>
[mailto:main@jfw.groups.io] On Behalf Of Jenni Kent
Sent: Friday, November 17, 2017 3:21 PM
To: main@jfw.groups.io <mailto:main@jfw.groups.io>
Subject: financing for jaws

Hi,

I am trying to upgrade my jaws and get an sma I live in Iowa In
Missouri there was the tap-i program that paid for assistive tech for
you every few years so you could access the internet. Now I am stuck
because I need this and don't know a way to get it i wish fs had a
payment plan for jfw so people could pay for jaws and an sma I could
do that but this six hundred bucks all at once crap is rediculous.










Re: Crowd Funding

Carolyn Arnold <4carolyna@...>
 

Peter, you sound very sharp to me - go for it!

Best from,

Carolyn

-----Original Message-----
From: main@jfw.groups.io [mailto:main@jfw.groups.io] On Behalf Of Peter Donahue
Sent: Friday, November 17, 2017 10:45 PM
To: main@jfw.groups.io
Subject: Crowd Funding

Good evening everyone,

CrowdFunding is widely used throughout many segments of society including those who are employed. It is not a form of begging and is not promoted as such. Rather it could be used as a way to raise public awareness of the existence of assistive technology and what users of this technology must do to cover the cost of keeping it up.

If folks can use crowd funding to raise money for needed surgery and treatments, funding to achieve educational and vocational goals and for many other purposes why not tap into this means of creating revenue to cover the cost of buying and maintaining assistive technology. Large corporations also use crowd funding to start and grow their existing business ventures or to start new ones. No one calls them beggars.

I used to hear this kind of garbage when I was a street performer. Those making such statements about this occupation are either dead, still broke and living on public assistance, or had to move back in with mmom and dad. Mary and I tapped into various means to raise funding for the things we need without going to voke rehab or some other public assistance program and are closer to achieving financial independence. If anyone wants to start calling widely used means of raising funds for personal or business matters begging watch your step with us! Otherwise you will be asked to cover the cost of buying my wife's El Braille 40 when it comes out and upgrading our versions of Jaws. Now let's tap the crowd to raise the needed funds for keeping our assistive technology and to raise awareness of how it can benefit those with disabilities including the blind. All the best.

Peter Donahue



-----Original Message-----
From: main@jfw.groups.io [mailto:main@jfw.groups.io] On Behalf Of Kelly Pierce
Sent: Friday, November 17, 2017 5:27 PM
To: main@jfw.groups.io
Subject: Re: financing for jaws, Why Not CrowdFunding?

Another way besides begging to raise needed funds is to find a job or start a small business. Computers and the Internet enable many to work at home.

Kelly
Another way besides begging to raise needed funds is to find a job or start a small business. Computers and the Internet enable many to work at home.

Kelly




On 11/17/17, Peter Donahue <pdonahue2@satx.rr.com> wrote:
Hello,

We're dealing with the same situation here. Perhaps it's time some of
us tried CrowdFunding as a way to raise needed funds to cover these expenses.
People raise funds for all kinds of personal and corporate projects
and individual needs this way. It's time we tapped the power of the
crowd to help us cover the cost of buying and upgrading assistive
technology as an alternative to voke rehab and other public funding
sources. We plan to launch our own crowdfunding site to upgrade our
assistive technology by year's end. If someone beats us to it that's wonderful! All the best.

Peter Donahue



-----Original Message-----
From: main@jfw.groups.io [mailto:main@jfw.groups.io] On Behalf Of
Jenni Kent
Sent: Friday, November 17, 2017 3:21 PM
To: main@jfw.groups.io
Subject: financing for jaws

Hi,

I am trying to upgrade my jaws and get an sma I live in Iowa In
Missouri there was the tap-i program that paid for assistive tech for
you every few years so you could access the internet. Now I am stuck
because I need this and don't know a way to get it i wish fs had a
payment plan for jfw so people could pay for jaws and an sma I could
do that but this six hundred bucks all at once crap is rediculous.










Crowdfunding: What Is It, What is it not?

Peter Donahue
 

Good morning everyone,

 

Please find below an article that explains Crowdfunding, Who is using it, What kind of projects can be funded this way, as well as a list of reputable Crowdfunding Sites. Crowdfunding is no different than any other cash-producing ventures. It can be used for positive ventures or malitious intent. Anyone that uses this method of fundraising is advised to use a reputable crowdfunding site to avoid becoming a victim of a scam.

 

                Given the state of assistive technology pricing and cuts to state and federal programs to help cover these costs it's our responsibility to investigate other means to acquire the needed funds to buy assistive technology and keep it in top-notch condition. We strongly urge you to keep an open mind to any and all possible sources of fundraising such as crowdfunding to cover the cost of owning and maintaining assistive technology. Here is the information:

 

From the Website: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowdfunding

 

Crowdfunding

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Crowdfunding is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising many small amounts of money from a large number of people, typically via the Internet.[1] Crowdfunding is a form of crowdsourcing and of alternative finance. In 2015, it was estimated that worldwide over US$34 billion was raised this way.[2][3]

 

Although similar concepts can also be executed through mail-order subscriptions, benefit events, and other methods, the term crowdfunding refers to Internet-mediated registries.[4] This modern crowdfunding model is generally based on three types of actors: the project initiator who proposes the idea and/or project to be funded, individuals or groups who support the idea, and a moderating organization (the "platform") that brings the parties together to launch the idea.[5]

 

Crowdfunding has been used to fund a wide range for-profit entrepreneurial ventures such as artistic and creative projects, medical expenses, travel, or community-oriented social entrepreneurship projects.[6]

 

 

 

Contents  [hide]

1 History

2 Types 2.1 Reward-based

2.2 Equity

2.3 Software value token

2.4 Debt-based

2.5 Litigation

2.6 Donation-based

 

3 Role

4 Platforms

5 Significant campaigns 5.1 Early campaigns

5.2 Highest-grossing campaigns

5.3 Kickstarter campaigns

5.4 Controversy

 

6 Applications 6.1 Food and agriculture

6.2 Philanthropy and civic projects

6.3 Real estate

6.4 Intellectual property exposure

6.5 Science

6.6 Journalism

6.7 International Development

 

7 Benefits and risks 7.1 Benefits for the creator

7.2 Risks and barriers for the creator

7.3 Benefits for the investor

7.4 Risks for the investor

 

8 See also

9 References

10 Further reading

 

 

History[edit]

 

 

 

 

A printed receipt 135 x 97 mm issued between 1850 and 1857 to support the French philosopher Auguste Comte[7][unreliable source?]

Crowdfunding has a long history with several roots. Books have been crowdfunded for centuries: Authors and publishers would advertise book projects in praenumeration or subscription schemes. The book would be written and published if enough subscribers signaled their readiness to buy the book once it was out. The subscription business model is not exactly crowdfunding, since the actual flow of money only begins with the arrival of the product. The list of subscribers has, though, the power to create the necessary confidence among investors that is needed to risk the publication.[8]

 

War bonds are theoretically a form of crowdfunding military conflicts. London's mercantile community saved the Bank of England in the 1730s when customers demanded their pounds to be converted into gold - they supported the currency until confidence in the pound was restored, thus crowdfunded their own money. A clearer case of modern crowdfunding is Auguste Comte's scheme to issue notes for the public support of his further work as a philosopher. The "Premiere Circulaire Annuelle adressée par l’auteur du Systeme de Philosophie Positive" was published on 14 March 1850, and several of these notes, blank and with sums have survived.[9] The cooperative movement of the 19th and 20th centuries is a broader precursor. It generated collective groups, such as community or interest-based groups, pooling subscribed funds to develop new concepts, products, and means of distribution and production, particularly in rural areas of Western Europe and North America. In 1885, when government sources failed to provide funding to build a monumental base for the Statue of Liberty, a newspaper-led campaign attracted small donations from 160,000 donors.[8]

 

Crowdfunding on the internet first gained popular and mainstream use in the arts and music communities.[10] The first noteworthy instance of online crowdfunding in the music industry was in 1997, when fans underwrote an entire U.S. tour for the British rock band Marillion, raising US$60,000 in donations by means of a fan-based Internet campaign. They subsequently used this method to fund their studio albums.[11][12][13] In the film industry, independent writer/director Mark Tapio Kines designed a website in 1997 for his then-unfinished first feature film Foreign Correspondents. By early 1999, he had raised more than US$125,000 on the Internet from at least 25 fans, providing him with the funds to complete his film.[14] In 2002, the "Free Blender" campaign was an early software crowdfunding precursor.[15][16] The campaign aimed for open-sourcing the Blender 3D computer graphics software by collecting $100,000 from the community while offering additional benefits for donating members.[17]

 

 

 

 

Indiegogo's logo.

Crowdfunding started to gain mainstream traction with the launch of ArtistShare (2003).[18] As the model matured, more crowdfunding sites started to appear on the web such as Kiva (2005), IndieGoGo (2008), Kickstarter (2009), and Microventures (2010).[19][20]

 

The phenomenon of crowdfunding is older than the term "crowdfunding". According to wordspy.com, the earliest recorded use of the word was in August 2006.[21]

 

Types[edit]

 

The Crowdfunding Centre's May 2014 report identified two primary types of crowdfunding:

1.Rewards crowdfunding: entrepreneurs presell a product or service to launch a business concept without incurring debt or sacrificing equity/shares.

2.Equity crowdfunding: the backer receives shares of a company, usually in its early stages, in exchange for the money pledged.[22]

 

Reward-based[edit]

 

Reward-based crowdfunding has been used for a wide range of purposes, including motion picture promotion,[23] free software development, inventions development, scientific research,[24] and civic projects.[25]

 

Many characteristics of rewards-based crowdfunding, also called non-equity crowdfunding, have been identified by research studies. In rewards-based crowdfunding, funding does not rely on location. The distance between creators and investors on Sellaband was about 3,000 miles when the platform introduced royalty sharing. The funding for these projects is distributed unevenly, with a few projects accounting for the majority of overall funding. Additionally, funding increases as a project nears its goal, encouraging what is called "herding behavior". Research also shows that friends and family account for a large, or even majority, portion of early fundraising. This capital may encourage subsequent funders to invest in the project. While funding does not depend on location, observation shows that funding is largely tied to the locations of traditional financing options. In reward-based crowdfunding, funders are often too hopeful about project returns and must revise expectations when returns are not met.[10]

 

Equity[edit]

 

Equity crowdfunding is the collective effort of individuals to support efforts initiated by other people or organizations through the provision of finance in the form of equity.[26][27] In the United States, legislation that is mentioned in the 2012 JOBS Act will allow for a wider pool of small investors with fewer restrictions following the implementation of the act.[28][29] Unlike nonequity crowdfunding, equity crowdfunding contains heightened "information asymmetries". The creator must not only produce the product for which they are raising capital, but also create equity through the construction of a company.[10] Equity crowdfunding, unlike donation and rewards-based crowdfunding, involves the offer of securities which include the potential for a return on investment. Syndicates, which involve many investors following the strategy of a single lead investor, can be effective in reducing information asymmetry and in avoiding the outcome of market failure associated with equity crowdfunding.[30]

 

Software value token[edit]

 

Another kind of crowdfunding is to raise funds for a project where a digital or software-based value token is offered as a reward to funders which is known as Initial coin offering (abbreviated to ICO). Value tokens are endogenously created by particular open decentralized networks that are used to incentivize client computers of the network to expend scarce computer resources on maintaining the protocol network.[31] These value tokens may or may not exist at the time of the crowdsale, and may require substantial development effort and eventual software release before the token is live and establishes a market value. Although funds may be raised simply for the value token itself, funds raised on blockchain-based crowdfunding can also represent equity, bonds, or even "market-maker seats of governance" for the entity being funded.[32] Examples of such crowdsales are Augur decentralized, distributed prediction market software which raised US$4 million from more than 3500 participants;[32][33] Ethereum blockchain; Digix/DigixDAO;[34] and "The DAO."[35][36][37][38] Some of the largest token crowdsales in 2017 were Tezos which raised US$232 million, Bancor which raised US$153 million and Status which raised US$102 million[39].

 

Debt-based[edit]

 

See also: Peer-to-peer lending

 

Debt-based crowdfunding (also known as "peer to peer", "P2P", "marketplace lending", or "crowdlending") arose with the founding of Zopa in the UK in 2005[40] and in the US in 2006, with the launches of Lending Club and Prosper.com.[41] Borrowers apply online, generally for free, and their application is reviewed and verified by an automated system, which also determines the borrower's credit risk and interest rate. Investors buy securities in a fund which makes the loans to individual borrowers or bundles of borrowers. Investors make money from interest on the unsecured loans; the system operators make money by taking a percentage of the loan and a loan servicing fee.[41] In 2009, institutional investors entered the P2P lending arena; for example in 2013, Google invested $125 million in Lending Club.[41] In 2014 in the US, P2P lending totalled about $5 billion.[42] In 2014 in the UK, P2P platforms lent businesses £749 million, a growth of 250% from 2012 to 2014, and lent retail customers £547 million, a growth of 108% from 2012 to 2014.[43]:23 In both countries in 2014, about 75% of all the money transferred through crowdfunding went through P2P platforms.[42] Lending Club went public in December 2014 at a valuation around $9 billion.[41] Debt crowdfunding in the U.S. further evolved with the 2016 enactment of Title III of the JOBS Act, which allows unaccredited investors to invest directly in private businesses through regulated Funding Portals or Broker-Dealers.[44]

 

Litigation[edit]

 

Litigation crowdfunding allows plaintiffs or defendants to reach out to hundreds of their peers simultaneously in a semiprivate and confidential manner to obtain funding, either seeking donations or providing a reward in return for funding. It also allows investors to purchase a stake in a claim they have funded, which may allow them to get back more than their investment if the case succeeds (the reward is based on the compensation received by the litigant at the end of his or her case, known as a contingent fee in the United States, a success fee in the United Kingdom, or a pactum de quota litis in many civil law systems).[45] LexShares is a platform that allows accredited investors to invest in lawsuits.[46]

 

Donation-based[edit]

 

Charity donation-based crowdfunding is the collective effort of individuals to help charitable causes.[47] In charity crowdfunding, funds are raised for pro-social or pro-environmental purposes.[48]

 

Role[edit]

 

The inputs of the individuals in the crowd trigger the crowdfunding process and influence the ultimate value of the offerings or outcomes of the process. Each individual acts as an agent of the offering, selecting and promoting the projects in which they believe. They sometimes play a donor role oriented towards providing help on social projects. In some cases, they become shareholders and contribute to the development and growth of the offering. Individuals disseminate information about projects they support in their online communities, generating further support (promoters). Motivation for consumer participation stems from the feeling of being at least partly responsible for the success of others’ initiatives (desire for patronage), striving to be a part of a communal social initiative (desire for social participation), and seeking a payoff from monetary contributions (desire for investment).[5] Additionally, individuals participate in crowdfunding to see new and innovative products before the public. Early access often allows funders to participate more directly in the development of the product. Crowdfunding is also particularly attractive to funders who are family and friends of a creator. It helps to mediate the terms of their financial agreement and manage each group’s expectations for the project.[10]

 

An individual who takes part in crowdfunding initiatives tends to reveal several distinct traits: innovative orientation, which stimulates the desire to try new modes of interacting with firms and other consumers; social identification with the content, cause or project selected for funding, which sparks the desire to be a part of the initiative; (monetary) exploitation, which motivates the individual to participate by expecting a payoff.[5][49] Crowdfunding platforms are motivated to generate income by drawing worthwhile projects and generous funders. These sites also seek widespread public attention for their projects and platform.[10]

 

Crowdfunding websites helped companies and individuals worldwide raise US$89 million from members of the public in 2010, $1.47 billion in 2011, and $2.66 billion in 2012 — $1.6 billion of the 2012 amount was raised in North America.[50] In 2012, more than one million individual campaigns were established globally[51] and the industry was projected to grow to US$5.1 billion in 2013.[51] and to reach US$1 trillion in 2025.[52] A May 2014 report, released by the United Kingdom-based The Crowdfunding Centre and titled "The State of the Crowdfunding Nation", presented data showing that during March 2014, more than US$60,000 were raised on an hourly basis via global crowdfunding initiatives. Also during this period, 442 crowdfunding campaigns were launched globally on a daily basis.[22]

 

Platforms[edit]

 

Further information: Comparison of crowd funding services

 

In 2012, there were over 450 crowdfunding platforms operating.[53] In 2015 it was predicted that there would be over 2,000 crowdfunding sites to choose from in 2016.[54] Project creators need to exercise their own due diligence to understand which platform is the best to use depending on the type of project that they want to launch.[49] Fundamental differences exist in the services provided by many crowdfunding platforms.[5] For instance, CrowdCube and Seedrs are Internet platforms which enable small companies to issue shares over the Internet and receive small investments from registered users in return. While CrowdCube is meant for users to invest small amounts and acquire shares directly in start-up companies, Seedrs pools the funds to invest in new businesses, as a nominated agent.[55]

 

Curated crowdfunding platforms serve as "network orchestrators" by curating the offerings that are allowed on the platform. They create the necessary organizational systems and conditions for resource integration among other players to take place.[5] Relational mediators act as an intermediary between supply and demand. They replace traditional intermediaries (such as traditional record companies, venture capitalists). These platforms link new artists, designers, project initiators with committed supporters who believe in the persons behind the projects strongly enough to provide monetary support.[citation needed] Growth engines focus on the strong inclusion of investors. They "disintermediate" by eliminating the activity of a service provider previously involved in the network. The platforms that use crowdfunding to seek stakes from a community of high net-worth private investors and match them directly with project initiators.[citation needed]

 

Significant campaigns[edit]

 

Early campaigns[edit]

 

The Professional Contractors Group, a trade body representing freelancers in the UK, raised £100,000 over a two week period in 1999[56] from some 2000 freelancers threatened by a Government measure known as IR35. In 2004, Electric Eel Shock, a Japanese rock band, raised £10,000 from 100 fans (the Samurai 100) by offering them a lifetime membership on the band's guestlist.[57] Two years later, they became the fastest band to raise a US$50,000 budget on SellaBand.[58] Franny Armstrong later created a donation system for her feature film The Age of Stupid.[59] Over five years, from June 2004 to June 2009 (release date), she raised £1,500,000.[60] In December 2004, French entrepreneurs and producers Benjamin Pommeraud and Guillaume Colboc, launched a public Internet donation campaign [61] to fund their short science fiction film, Demain la Veille (Waiting for Yesterday). Within a month, they managed to raise €17,000 online, allowing them to shoot their film.[citation needed]

 

Highest-grossing campaigns[edit]

 

As of 2015 the highest reported funding by a crowdfunded project to date was Star Citizen, an online space trading and combat video game being developed by Chris Roberts and Cloud Imperium Games; it had raised $77M by that time, and while it had a devoted fan base it was also criticized for being a potential scam.[62]

 

Brave’s $35 million Basic Attention Token (BAT) sale sold out in less than 30 seconds.[63]

 

Kickstarter campaigns[edit]

 

On April 17, 2014, the Guardian media outlet published a list of "20 of the most significant projects" launched on the Kickstarter platform prior to the date of publication:

Musician Amanda Palmer raised US$1.2 million from 24,883 backers in June 2012 to make a new album and art book.[64]

The "Coolest Cooler" raised a total of $13,285,226 from 62,642 backers.[65] The cooler features a blender, waterproof Bluetooth speakers and an LED light.

Zack Brown raised $55,000 from over 6900 backers in September 2014 to make a bowl of potato salad. Noteworthy is that his initial goal was only $10, but his campaign went viral and got a lot of attention. Brown ended up throwing a potato salad party with over 3,000 pounds of potatoes.[66]

 

Controversy[edit]

 

 

 

 

Amanda Palmer (shown above) raised funds for her album using Kickstarter.[64]

Although musician Palmer raised over $1 million through the Kickstarter crowdfunding process, she received criticism afterward, some of which was published in prominent media outlets. Writing for the New Yorker, Joshua Clover initially focused upon issues specific to Palmer, but then broadened the scope of his examination to include financial conduct in the Internet era. ("you can’t spell Internet without intern.") According to Clover, Palmer initially invited local musicians to play on stage with her band and her on the stops of her U.S. tour, but offered to "feed you beer, hug/high-five you up and down (pick your poison), give you merch, and thank you mightily," instead of monetary compensation, as the money raised on Kickstarter was allocated to the production of the next studio album—in accordance with the campaign—as well as other financial commitments.[67] This decision was then overturned a week later, as Palmer explained on her blog:

 

 

My management team tweaked and reconfigured financials, pulling money from this and that other budget (mostly video) and moving it to the tour budget. All of the money we took out of those budgets is going to the crowd-sourced musicians fund. We are going to pay the volunteer musicians every night ... We're also retroactively sending a payment to the folks who've already played with us.[67]

 

Clover also made reference to the British political situation at the time, writing "that even newly minted haves, like Amanda Palmer, really need to treat have-nots, such as local musicians, a whole lot better." In a September 12, 2012 New York Times article, American Federation of Musicians President Raymond M. Hair Jr. explained, "If there's a need for the musician to be on the stage, then there ought to be compensation for it."[68] The following day, prominent sound engineer and musician Steve Albini was also vocal and, after initially referring to Palmer as an "idiot," apologized, writing that he had not met her or heard her music. Following his apology, in which he admits "it's my fault," Albini asserted: "It should be obvious also that having gotten over a million dollars from such an effort that it is just plain rude to ask for further indulgences from your audience, like playing in your backing band for free."[69]

 

Controversy arose in the crowdfunding sector in May 2014 when an adult entertainer was blocked by platform GiveForward. Following an allergy reaction, Eden Alexander required intensive medical treatment, but doctors, aware of her occupation, associated her health issue with drug use and did not provide the necessary care to a sufficient extent; as a consequence, Alexander's condition worsened. Alexander then launched a GiveForward crowdfunding campaign to cover her medical bills, but the campaign was removed from the platform after a social media exchange, whereby a potential donor requested nude pictures as reciprocation and Alexander agreed to the offer—this was noticed within a brief time frame and WePay, the payment service used by GiveForward, deemed the negotiation a violation of WePay's terms of service, considering it the offer of "Adult or adult-related services ... Adult or adult-related content ... and Obscene or pornographic items." Alexander restarted her crowdfunding campaign by using the services of Tilt.com. The campaign ended on June 13, 2014 with $10,550 raised.[70]

 

Following the Alexander incident of May 2014, WePay CEO Bill Clerico wrote an explanation of their terms in relation to adult services to the TechCrunch media outlet:

 

 

WePay faces tremendous scrutiny from its partners & card networks around the enforcement of policy, especially when it comes to adult content. We must enforce these policies or we face hefty fines or the risk of shutdown for the many hundreds of thousands of merchants on our service. We’re incredibly sorry that these policies added to the difficulties that Eden is facing. We offered to help her setup a new campaign that complied with our policies, but I believe that her friends chose to work with another company instead. We continue to stand by to help if Eden would like to work with us further, and we are reviewing both our Terms of Service & account shutdown process to see how we can avoid situations like this in the future.[70]

 

Clerico further stated that such practice is "a relatively common requirement in the industry" and assured the TechCrunch writer that WePay agreed to cease Alexander's campaign "because we are contractually required to."[70]

 

Applications[edit]

 

Crowdfunding is being explored as a potential funding mechanism for creative work such as blogging and journalism,[71] music, independent film (see crowdfunded film),[72][73] and for funding startup companies.[74][75][76][77] Community music labels are usually for-profit organizations where "fans assume the traditional financier role of a record label for artists they believe in by funding the recording process".[78] Since pioneering crowdfunding in the film industry, Spanner Films has published a "how to" guide.[79] A Financialist article published in mid-September 2013 stated that "the niche for crowdfunding exists in financing films with budgets in the [US]$1 to $10 million range" and crowdfunding campaigns are "much more likely to be successful if they tap into a significant pre-existing fan base and fulfill an existing gap in the market."[80] Innovative new platforms, such as RocketHub, have emerged that combine traditional funding for creative work with branded crowdsourcing—helping artists and entrepreneurs unite with brands "without the need for a middle man."[81]

 

Food and agriculture[edit]

 

Several crowdfunding platforms have emerged that allow people to donate or invest in food- and agriculture-related opportunities. AgFunder is one global platform that gives both individual and institutional investors access to venture capital investments, both in agriculture technology and food technology companies.[82] Cropital has developed a platform to allow investors to invest in small-holder farmers,[83] and rewards-based platforms like Barnraiser allow users to support farmers and food startups.[84]

 

The crowdfunding platform PieShell was launched in 2016 to focus exclusively on food and beverage campaigns.[85]

 

Philanthropy and civic projects[edit]

 

A variety of crowdfunding platforms have emerged to allow ordinary web users to support specific philanthropic projects without the need for large amounts of money.[25] GlobalGiving allows individuals to browse through a selection of small projects proposed by nonprofit organizations worldwide, donating funds to projects of their choice. Microcredit crowdfunding platforms such as Kiva (organization) facilitate crowdfunding of loans managed by microcredit organizations in developing countries. The US-based nonprofit Zidisha applies a direct person-to-person lending model to microcredit lending for low-income small business owners in developing countries.[86]

 

DonorsChoose.org, founded in 2000, allows public school teachers in the United States to request materials for their classrooms. Individuals can lend money to teacher-proposed projects, and the organization fulfills and delivers supplies to schools. There are also a number of own-branded university crowdfunding websites, which enable students and staff to create projects and receive funding from alumni of the university or the general public. Several dedicated civic crowdfunding platforms have emerged in the US and the UK, some of which have led to the first direct involvement of governments in crowdfunding. In the UK, Spacehive is used by the Mayor of London and Manchester City Council to co-fund civic projects created by citizens.[87] Similarly, dedicated Humanitarian Crowdfunding initiatives are emerging, involving humanitarian organizations, volunteers and supports in solving and modeling how to build innovative crowdfunding solutions for the humanitarian community. Likewise, international organizations like the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) have been researching and publishing about the topic.[88]

 

One crowdfunding project, iCancer, was used to support a Phase 1 trial of AdVince an anti-cancer drug in 2016.[89][90]

 

Real estate[edit]

 

Real estate crowdfunding is the online pooling of capital from investors to fund mortgages secured by real estate, such as "fix and flip" redevelopment of distressed or abandoned properties, and equity for commercial and residential projects, acquisition of pools of distressed mortgages, home buyer down payments and similar real estate related outlets. Investment, via specialised online platforms in the US, is generally completed under Title II of the JOBS Act and is limited to accredited investors. The platforms offer low minimum investments, often $100 – $10,000.[91][92] There are over 75 real estate crowdfunding platforms in the United States.[93] The growth of real estate crowdfunding is a global tendency. During 2014 and 2015, more than 150 platforms have been created throughout the world, such as in China, the Middle East, or France. In Europe, some compare this growing industry to that of e-commerce ten years ago.[94]

 

In Europe the requirements towards investors are not as high as in the United States, lowering the entry barrier into the real estate investments in general.[95]

 

Intellectual property exposure[edit]

 

One of the challenges of posting new ideas on crowdfunding sites is there may be little or no intellectual property (IP) protection provided by the sites themselves. Once an idea is posted, it can be copied. As Slava Rubin, founder of IndieGoGo, said: "We get asked that all the time, ‘How do you protect me from someone stealing my idea?’ We’re not liable for any of that stuff."[96] Inventor advocates, such as Simon Brown, founder of the UK-based United Innovation Association, counsel that ideas can be protected on crowdfunding sites through early filing of patent applications, use of copyright and trademark protection as well as a new form of idea protection supported by the World Intellectual Property Organization called Creative Barcode.[97]

 

Science[edit]

 

A number of platforms have also emerged that specialize in the crowdfunding of scientific projects, such as experiment.com, and The Open Source Science Project.[98] In the scientific community, these new options for research funding are seen ambivalently. Advocates of crowdfunding for science emphasize that it allows early-career scientists to apply for their own projects early on, that it forces scientists to communicate clearly and comprehensively to a broader public, that it may alleviate problems of the established funding systems which are seen to fund conventional, mainstream projects, and that it gives the public a say in science funding.[99] In turn, critics are worried about quality control on crowdfunding platforms. If non-scientists were allowed to make funding decisions, it would be more likely that "panda bear science" is funded, i.e. research with broad appeal but lacking scientific substance.[100] Initial studies found that crowdfunding is used within science, mostly by young researchers to fund small parts of their projects, and with high success rates. At the same time, funding success seems to be strongly influenced by non-scientific factors like humor, visualizations, or the ease and security of payment.[101]

 

Further information: Category:Crowdfunded science

 

Journalism[edit]

 

In order to fund online and print publications, journalists are enlisting the help of crowdfunding. Crowdfunding allows for small start-ups and individual journalists to fund their work without the institutional help of major public broadcasters. Stories are publicly pitched using crowdfunding platforms such as Kickstarter, Indiegogo, or Spot.us. The funds collected from crowdsourcing may be put toward travel expenses or purchasing equipment. Crowdfunding in journalism may also be viewed as a way to allow audiences to participate in news production and in creating a participatory culture.[102] Though deciding which stories are published is a role that traditionally belongs to editors at more established publications, crowdfunding can give the public an opportunity to provide input in deciding which stories are reported. This is done by funding certain reporters and their pitches. Donating can be seen as an act that "bonds" reporters and their readers. This is because readers are expressing interest for their work, which can be "personally motivating" or "gratifying" for reporters.[103]

 

Spot.us, which was closed in February 2015, was a crowdfunding platform that was specifically meant for journalism.[102][104] The website allowed for readers, individual donors, registered Spot.us reporters, or news organizations to fund or donate talent toward a pitch of their choosing. While funders are not normally involved in editorial control, Spot.us allowed for donors or "community members" to become involved with the co-creation of a story. This gave them the ability to edit articles, submit photographs, or share leads and information.[103] According to an analysis by Public Insight Network, Spot.us was not sustainable for various reasons. Many contributors were not returning donors and often, projects were funded by family and friends. The overall market for crowdfunding journalism may also be a factor; donations for journalism projects accounted for .13 percent of the $2.8 billion that was raised in 2013.[105]

 

Larger crowdfunding platforms such as Indiegogo or Kickstarter, both of which are not journalism-specific, may garner more success for projects. This is because these large-scale platforms can allow journalists to reach new audiences. In 2017, 2.3 million out of Kickstarter's 7.9 million users had donated toward more than one project.[citation needed]

 

Traditionally, journalists are not involved in advertising and marketing. Crowdfunding means that journalists are attracting funders while trying to remain independent, which may pose a conflict. Therefore, being directly involved with financial aspects can call journalistic integrity and journalistic objectivity into question. This is also due to the fact that journalists may feel some pressure or "a sense of responsibility" toward funders who support a particular project.[102] Crowdfunding can also allow for a blurred line between professional and non-professional journalism because if enough interest is generated, anyone may have their work published.[106]

 

International Development[edit]

 

There is some hope that crowdfunding has potential as a tool open for use by groups of people traditionally more marginalized. The World Bank published a report titled “Crowdfunding’s potential for the Developing World” which states that “While crowdfunding is still largely a developed world phenomenon, with the support of governments and development organizations it could become a useful tool in the developing world as well. Substantial reservoirs of entrepreneurial talent, activity, and capital lay dormant in many emerging economies...Crowdfunding and crowdfund investing have several important roles to play in the developing world’s entrepreneurial and venture finance ecosystem.[107]

 

Benefits and risks[edit]

 

Benefits for the creator[edit]

 

Crowdfunding campaigns provide producers with a number of benefits, beyond the strict financial gains.[108] The following are non financial benefits of crowdfunding.

Profile – a compelling project can raise a producer's profile and provide a boost to their reputation.

Marketing – project initiators can show there is an audience and market for their project. In the case of an unsuccessful campaign, it provides good market feedback.

Audience engagement – crowd funding creates a forum where project initiators can engage with their audiences. Audience can engage in the production process by following progress through updates from the creators and sharing feedback via comment features on the project's crowdfunding page.

Feedback – offering pre-release access to content or the opportunity to beta-test content to project backers as a part of the funding incentives provides the project initiators with instant access to good market testing feedback.

 

There are also financial benefits to the creator. For one, crowdfunding allows creators to attain low-cost capital. Traditionally, a creator would need to look to "personal savings, home equity loans, personal credit cards, friends and family members, angel investors, and venture capitalists." With crowdfunding, creators can find funders from around the world, sell both their product and equity, and benefit from increased information flow. Additionally, crowdfunding that supports pre-buying allows creators to obtain early feedback on the product.[10] Proponents of the crowdfunding approach argue that it allows good ideas which do not fit the pattern required by conventional financiers to break through and attract cash through the wisdom of the crowd. If it does achieve "traction" in this way, not only can the enterprise secure seed funding to begin its project, but it may also secure evidence of backing from potential customers and benefit from word of mouth promotion in order to reach the fundraising goal.[109] Another potential positive effect is the propensity of groups to "produce an accurate aggregate prediction" about market outcomes as identified by author James Surowiecki in his book The Wisdom of Crowds, thereby placing financial backing behind ventures likely to succeed.

 

Proponents also identify a potential outcome of crowdfunding as an exponential increase in available venture capital. One report claims that If every American family gave one percent of their investable assets to crowdfunding, $300 billion (a 10X increase) would come into venture capital.[110] Proponents also cite that a benefit for companies receiving crowdfunding support is that they retain control of their operations, as voting rights are not conveyed along with ownership when crowdfunding. As part of his response to the Amanda Palmer Kickstarter controversy, Albini expressed his supportive views of crowdfunding for musicians, explaining: "I've said many times that I think they're part of the new way bands and their audience interact and they can be a fantastic resource, enabling bands to do things essentially in cooperation with their audience." Albini described the concept of crowdfunding as "pretty amazing."[69]

 

Risks and barriers for the creator[edit]

 

Crowdfunding also comes with a number of potential risks or barriers.[111] For the creator, as well as the investor, studies show that crowdfunding contains "high levels of risk, uncertainty, and information asymmetry."[10]

Reputation – failure to meet campaign goals or to generate interest results in a public failure. Reaching financial goals and successfully gathering substantial public support but being unable to deliver on a project for some reason can severely negatively impact one's reputation.

IP protection – many Interactive Digital Media developers and content producers are reluctant to publicly announce the details of a project before production due to concerns about idea theft and protecting their IP from plagiarism.[111] Creators who engage in crowdfunding are required to release their product to the public in early stages of funding and development, exposing themselves to the risk of copy by competitors.[10]

Donor exhaustion – there is a risk that if the same network of supporters is reached out to multiple times, that network will eventually cease to supply necessary support.

Public fear of abuse – concern among supporters that without a regulatory framework, the likelihood of a scam or an abuse of funds is high. The concern may become a barrier to public engagement.

 

For crowdfunding of equity stock purchases, there is some research in social psychology that indicates that, like in all investments, people don't always do their due diligence to determine if it's a sound investment before investing, which leads to making investment decisions based on emotion rather than financial logic.[112] By using crowdfunding, creators also forgo potential support and value that a single angel investor or venture capitalist might offer. Likewise, crowdfunding requires that creators manage their investors. This can be time-consuming and financially burdensome as the number of investors in the crowd rises.[10] Crowdfunding draws a crowd: investors and other interested observers who follow the progress, or lack of progress, of a project. Sometimes it proves easier to raise the money for a project than to make the project a success. Managing communications with a large number of possibly disappointed investors and supporters can be a substantial, and potentially diverting, task.[113]

 

Some of the most popular fundraisings are for commercial companies which use the process to reach customers and at the same time market their products and services. This favors companies like microbreweries and specialist restaurants – in effect creating a "club" of people who are customers as well as investors. In the USA in 2015, new rules from the SEC to regulate equity crowdfunding will mean that larger businesses with more than 500 investors and more than $25 million in assets will have to file reports like a public company. The Wall Street Journal commented "It is all the pain of an IPO without the benefits of the IPO." [114] These two trends may mean crowdfunding is most suited to small consumer-facing companies rather than tech start-ups.

 

Benefits for the investor[edit]

 

There are several ways in which a well-regulated crowdfunding platform can provide attractive returns for investors:

Crowdfunding Reduces Costs – The platforms reduce search and transaction costs, which allows a higher participation in the market. Many individual investors would otherwise have a hard time to invest in early-stage companies because of the difficulty of identifying a company directly and the high costs of joining an Angel Group or doing it through a professional venture firm.

Current Early Stage Investing Isn’t Efficient – Venture capital firms often neglect the consumer sector and focus mainly on high-tech companies. Crowdfunding opens up some of these neglected markets to individual investors. Crowdfunding doesn’t make sense in every industry, but for some, like retail and consumer, it does.

Value of New Investors – Another reason why crowdfunding is attractive is that the investors add value to companies. They act as brand advocates and can even be used as a focus group. Crowd funding allows individual investors to be a valuable part of the company they invest in.[115]

 

Risks for the investor[edit]

 

On crowdfunding platforms, the problem of information asymmetry is exacerbated due to the reduced ability of the investor to conduct due diligence.[30] Early stage investing is typically localized, as the costs of conducting due diligence before making investment decisions and the costs of monitoring after investing both rise with distance. However, this trend is not observed on crowdfunding platforms - these platforms are not geographically constrained and bring in investors from near and far.[29][116] On non-equity or reward-based platforms, investors try to mitigate this risk by using the amount of capital raised as a signal of performance or quality. On equity-based platforms, crowdfunding syndicates reduce information asymmetry through dual channels – through portfolio diversification and better due diligence as in the case of offline early-stage investing, but also by allowing lead investors with more information and better networks to lead crowds of backers to make investment decisions.[30]

 

See also[edit]

Angel investor

Assurance contract

Business models for open-source software

Comparison of crowd funding services

Crowd funding in video games

Crowdsourcing

Fan-funded music

Humanitarian Crowdfunding

List of highest funded crowdfunding projects

List of highest funded equity crowdfunding projects

Microcredit

Microfinance

One Spark

Threshold pledge system

 

References[edit]

 

1.Jump up ^ "Definition of Crowdfunding". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2017-10-23.

2.Jump up ^ "Cambridge Judge Business School: Cambridge Centre for Alternative Finance". Jbs.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 2015-07-24.

3.Jump up ^ Barnett, Chance (June 9, 2015). "Trends Show Crowdfunding To Surpass VC In 2016". Forbes. Retrieved June 29, 2016.

4.Jump up ^ "Oxford Dictionary Definition of Crowdfunding". Retrieved July 23, 2014.; The Merriam Webster Dictionary defines crowdfunding as "the practice of soliciting financial contributions from a large number of people especially from the online community" "Merriam Webster Dictionary Definition of Crowdfunding". Retrieved July 23, 2014.

5.^ Jump up to: a b c d e "Crowdfunding: Transforming Customers Into Investors Through Innovative Service Platforms" (PDF). Retrieved February 7, 2013.

6.Jump up ^ Gleasure, R., & Feller, J. (2016). Emerging technologies and the democratisation of financial services: A metatriangulation of crowdfunding research. Information and Organization, 26(4), 101-115.

7.Jump up ^ Olaf Simons (2016-03-10). "Crowdsourcing Comte". positivists.org. Retrieved 2016-03-10.

8.^ Jump up to: a b "The Statue of Liberty and America's crowdfunding pioneer". BBC Online. April 24, 2013. Retrieved April 28, 2013.

9.Jump up ^ Olaf Simons (2016-03-11). "Crowdfunding Comte". positivists.org. Retrieved 2016-03-11.

10.^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i Agrawal, Ajay, Christian Catalini, and Avi Goldfarb. "Some Simple Economics of Crowdfunding." National Bureau of Economic Research (2014): 63-97.

11.Jump up ^ Golemis, Dean (September 23, 1997). "British Band's U.s. Tour Is Computer-generated". Chicago Tribune.

12.Jump up ^ Masters, Tim (November 5, 2011). "BBC News – Marillion 'understood where the internet was going early on'". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved September 3, 2013.

13.Jump up ^ "BBC article, May 11, 2001". BBC News. May 11, 2001.

14.Jump up ^ Andrew Rodgers (June 11, 1999). "Filmmaker Uses Web To Help Finance, Cast Movie". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved January 7, 2013.

15.Jump up ^ Blender Foundation Launches Campaign to Open Blender Source on linuxtoday (July 22, 2002)

16.Jump up ^ 'Free Blender Fund' campaign archived 2002

17.Jump up ^ Membership People can subscribe to become Foundation Member. Members who subscribe during the campaign period, get additional benefits for their support. During campaign: - Costs: minimum one time fee of 50 euros (or US$50) (archived 2002)

18.Jump up ^ "A Brief History Of Crowdfunding" (PDF).

19.Jump up ^ "Can You Spare a Quarter? Crowdfunding Sites Turn Fans into Patrons of the Arts". Wharton. December 8, 2010.

20.Jump up ^ MALIKA ZOUHALI-WORRALL. "Comparison of Crowdfunding Websites". Inc.com.

21.Jump up ^ "Crowdfundings earliest citation".

22.^ Jump up to: a b Catherine Clifford (May 19, 2014). "Crowdfunding Generates More Than $60,000 an Hour (Infographic)". Entrepreneur. Entrepreneur Media, Inc. Retrieved May 25, 2014.

23.Jump up ^ "Crowd funding: An emerging trend in Bollywood". The Times Of India. Retrieved August 12, 2012.

24.Jump up ^ "Crowdfunding as the future of science funding? | The Science Exchange Blog". Blog.scienceexchange.com. May 27, 2012. Retrieved August 19, 2012.

25.^ Jump up to: a b "Crowdfunding and Civic Society in Europe: A Profitable Partnership?". Open Citizenship Journal. Retrieved April 29, 2013.

26.Jump up ^ Ordanini, A.; Miceli, L.; Pizzetti, M.; Parasuraman, A. (2011). "Crowd-funding: Transforming customers into investors through innovative service platforms". Journal of Service Management. 22 (4): 443. doi:10.1108/09564231111155079. (also available as Scribd document)

27.Jump up ^ Prive, Tanya (November 27, 2012). "What IS Crowdfunding And How Does IT Benefit The Economy". Forbes. Retrieved November 27, 2012.

28.Jump up ^ Prive, Tanya (November 6, 2012). "Inside the JOBS Act: Equity Crowdfunding". Forbes. Retrieved November 6, 2012.

29.^ Jump up to: a b Agrawal, Ajay; Catalini, Christian; Goldfarb, Avi (2014-01-01). "Some Simple Economics of Crowdfunding". Innovation Policy and the Economy. 14 (1): 63–97. doi:10.1086/674021. ISSN 1531-3468.

30.^ Jump up to: a b c Agrawal, Ajay; Catalini, Christian; Goldfarb, Avi (2015-02-25). "Are Syndicates the Killer App of Equity Crowdfunding?". Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2569988. SSRN 2569988 Freely accessible.

31.Jump up ^ Williams, Dominic (2016-08-16). "On Protocol Tokens and Securities Law". Medium. Retrieved 2016-08-17. "Protocol tokens with value: Open decentralized networks depend upon endogenously produced virtual tokens with value (or at least, so far this is the case). These tokens are needed to incentivize owners of client computers to perform expensive ... computation that supports the network."

32.^ Jump up to: a b Tapscott, Don; Tapscott, Alex (May 2016). The Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin is Changing Money, Business, and the World. pp. 82–83, 128, 181, 245–246. ISBN 978-0670069972.

33.Jump up ^ http://www.coindesk.com/augur-beta/

34.Jump up ^ Aitken, Roger (2016-04-23). "Digital Gold 'Done Right' With DigixDAO Crypto-Trading On OpenLedger". Forbes. Retrieved 2016-04-28.

35.Jump up ^ Popper, Nathan (2016-05-21). "A Venture Fund With Plenty of Virtual Capital, but No Capitalist". New York Times. Retrieved 2016-05-22.

36.Jump up ^ "The DAO of accrue: A new, automated investment fund has attracted stacks of digital money". The Economist. 2016-05-21. Retrieved 2016-05-23.

37.Jump up ^ Waterss, Richard (2016-05-17). "Automated company raises equivalent of $120M in digital currency". Financial Times. Retrieved 2016-05-23.

38.Jump up ^ Allison, Ian (2016-04-30). "Ethereum reinvents companies with launch of The DAO". International Business Times. Retrieved 2016-05-01.

39.Jump up ^ ICO Statistics by ICO Watch List

40.Jump up ^ Ian Fraser for Unquoted. May 1, 2015 Crowdfunding Part 3: The P2P lenders

41.^ Jump up to: a b c d David M. Freedman and Matthew R. Nutting. A Brief History of Crowdfunding. Updated June 22, 2015

42.^ Jump up to: a b Bill Payne for Gust. May 4th, 2015 US Crowdfunding in 2014

43.Jump up ^ Nesta Annual Review 2014-2015

44.Jump up ^ Robb, Alicia. "The Potentials and Perils of Title III Crowdfunding". Forbes.com. Forbes. Retrieved 5 October 2016.

45.Jump up ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 21, 2015. Retrieved 2015-11-03.

46.Jump up ^ Randazzo, Sara (2016-08-04). "Litigation Funding Moves Into Mainstream". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2017-02-02.

47.Jump up ^ "Q&: Rizikitoto's Suraya Shivji, 17, crowd-funds for African orphans". times-standard.com.

48.Jump up ^ Choy, Katherine; Schlagwein, Daniel (2016), "Crowdsourcing for a better world: On the relation between IT affordances and donor motivations in charitable crowdfunding" (PDF), Information Technology & People, 29 (1)

49.^ Jump up to: a b Prive, Tanya (November 6, 2012). "Navigating The Sea Of Crowdfunding". Forbes. Retrieved November 13, 2012.

50.Jump up ^ Global Crowdfunding Volumes Rise 81% In 2012, August 4, 2013, The Huffington Post, Retrieved at September 7, 2013

51.^ Jump up to: a b Top 10 Crowdfunding Sites For Fundraising, May 8, 2013, Chance Barnett, Forbes

52.Jump up ^ The Rise of Crowdfunding October 28, 2015, MyPrivateBanking Research

53.Jump up ^ "Top 10 crowdfunding Platforms". 2012. Retrieved February 9, 2013.

54.Jump up ^ "2,000 Global Crowdfunding Sites to Choose from by 2016". The Huffington Post.

55.Jump up ^ Roy, Ritobaan (September 3, 2012). "Crowdfunding: Sideshow or Headline Act? – CFO Insight". Cfo-insight.com. Archived from the original on April 26, 2013. Retrieved September 3, 2013.

56.Jump up ^ "IR35 and the PCG crowdfund". IPSE. Retrieved 2017-07-25.

57.Jump up ^ "Drownedinsound.com "Wanna Go VIP? Electric Eel Shock'll show you the way...", December 2, 2004".

58.Jump up ^ "itsallhappening, June 24th, 2008". Archived from the original on November 15, 2012.

59.Jump up ^ Kate Bulkley (November 24, 2012). "funding models for film making | Sheffield Doc/Fest 2010 | guardian.co.uk". London: Guardian. Retrieved December 13, 2012.

60.Jump up ^ "Crowd-Funding FAQ". Spanner Films. July 13, 2009. Retrieved December 13, 2012.

61.Jump up ^ Christina Warren (January 17, 2011). "A Guide to Kickstarter & Crowd Funding [INFOGRAPHIC]". Mashable.com. Retrieved December 13, 2012.

62.Jump up ^ Baker, Chris (March 31, 2015). "Fans Have Dropped $77M on This Guy's Buggy, Half-Built Game". Wired.

63.Jump up ^ Keane, Jonathan (2017-07-04). "$35 Million in 30 Seconds: Token Sale for Internet Browser Brave Sells Out". Coindesk.

64.^ Jump up to: a b "Amanda Palmer Raises $1.2 Million On Kickstarter, And The Crowd Goes Wild". techdirt.com. June 1, 2012. Retrieved May 3, 2014.

65.Jump up ^ Dawes, Terry. "Pimped Out "Coolest" Cooler Set to Break Kickstarter Record". Cantech Letter.

66.Jump up ^ Gertjan Menten (October 15, 2015). "The business behind crowdfunding". Econible. Econible. Retrieved October 15, 2015.

67.^ Jump up to: a b Amy Phillips (September 19, 2012). "Amanda Palmer Starts Paying Musicians". Pitchfork. Pitchfork Media. Retrieved May 19, 2014.

68.Jump up ^ Daniel J. Wakin (September 12, 2012). "Rockers Playing for Beer: Fair Play?". The New York Times. Retrieved May 19, 2014.

69.^ Jump up to: a b Steve Albini (September 13, 2012). "Re: amanda "$1.2m" palmer wants you to play with her for fre" (Forum post). Electrical Audio. Electrical Audio. Retrieved May 19, 2014.

70.^ Jump up to: a b c Josh Constine (May 18, 2014). "WePay Withholds Funds From Sick Woman Due To Offer Of Porn For Donations". TechCrunch. AOL, Inc. Retrieved May 19, 2014.

71.Jump up ^ "Crowdfunding journalism". idio. May 19, 2009. Archived from the original on May 16, 2009. Retrieved May 15, 2009.

72.Jump up ^ Helen Pidd (April 14, 2009). "Teenagers' credit note approach to fund £1m film of Clovis Dardentor". London: Guardian. Retrieved August 19, 2012.

73.Jump up ^ Dell, Kristina (September 4, 2008). "TIME article on crowdfunding the 'Age of Stupid'". Time.com. Retrieved August 19, 2012.

74.Jump up ^ TechCrunch "Sponsume lets projects get off the ground with Groupon-style group funding model"

75.Jump up ^ "TechCrunch 'Grow VC launches, aiming to become the Kiva for tech startups'". Eu.techcrunch.com. February 15, 2010. Retrieved August 19, 2012.

76.Jump up ^ Prentice, Claire (May 12, 2010). "'Cash-strapped entrepreneurs get creative'". BBC News. Retrieved August 19, 2012.

77.Jump up ^ Crowdfunding Rules Could Create Mini-Disclosure Regime WSJ/CFO Journal, October 24, 2013 Emily Chasan

78.Jump up ^ Kappel, Tim, "Ex Ante Crowdfunding and the Recording Industry: A Model for the U.S.?" in Loyola of Los Angeles Entertainment Law Review, Vol.29, Issue 3, p.376

79.Jump up ^ "How to crowd fund your film". Spanner Films. Retrieved August 19, 2012.

80.Jump up ^ Jens Erik Gould (September 12, 2013). "In Hollywood, Crowdfunding Isn't Just for No-Names". The Financialist. Credit Suisse. Retrieved September 13, 2013.

81.Jump up ^ Bell, Melissa. "Crowd-sourcing a brand", The Washington Post, March 12, 2011, accessed September 3, 2011.

82.Jump up ^ Gould, Danielle. "AgFunder Launches Equity Crowdfunding Platform For $6.4 Trillion Food & Ag Industry". Forbes. Retrieved 2017-07-28.

83.Jump up ^ Hynes, Casey. "For Poor Filipino Farmers Reliant On Predatory Lending, This Startup Offers An Alternative". Forbes. Retrieved 2017-07-28.

84.Jump up ^ Schatz, Robin D. "Why Foodies And Farmers Are Flocking To A Crowdfunding Site Called Barnraiser". Forbes. Retrieved 2017-07-28.

85.Jump up ^ Roberts, Nina (May 31, 2017). "PieShell Wants To Be The Crowdfunding Site For Food StartUps". Forbes. Retrieved August 5, 2017.

86.Jump up ^ "Is Microfinance for You?", SecondAct, April 17, 2012.

87.Jump up ^ Prime Minister Hails Rise Of Civic Crowdfunding | Gov.uk

88.Jump up ^ Crowdfunding for Emergencies, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

89.Jump up ^ Masters, Alexander (2014-10-14). "A plutocratic proposal". Mosaic. The Wellcome Trust. Retrieved 2016-07-03.

90.Jump up ^ Masters, Alexander (2016-07-02). "Can crowdfunding really cure cancer? Alexander Masters investigates a pioneering new project". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2016-07-03.

91.Jump up ^ O'Connell, Jonathan (June 9, 2013) "Fundrise faces off with skeptical financial services industry over crowd-funded real estate". Washington Post. Retrieved June 26, 2014.

92.Jump up ^ Simon, Ruth and Brown, Eliot(June 11, 2014). "Real-Estate Sector Moves Crowdfunding Beyond the Trinkets". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 26, 2014 (subscription required).

93.Jump up ^ "Real Estate Crowdfunding Turns 75". Huffington Post. January 21, 2015.

94.Jump up ^ "Le crowdfunding va devenir un secteur de poids, à l'image du e-commerce".

95.Jump up ^ "Emerging Trends in Real Estate: New market realities" (PDF). pwc.com. Retrieved 29 August 2017.

96.Jump up ^ Mike Drummond, "Making it Rain: Seeking Seed Money from the Crowd", Inventors Digest, August 2011

97.Jump up ^ Simon Brown. "Simon Brown, "Follow the Crowd", Intellectual Property Magazine, July 2011". Ipworld.com. Retrieved August 19, 2012.

98.Jump up ^ Gorbis, Marina (2013). The Nature of the Future: Dispatches from the Socialstructed World. Simon & Shuster. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-4516-4118-9.

99.Jump up ^ Neel V. Patel. "Neel V. Patel, "Crowdfunded Science is here", Wired Magazine, April 24, 2015". Retrieved October 4, 2016.

100.Jump up ^ Nayanah Siva. "Nayanah Siva, "Crowdfunding medical research picks up the pace", The Lancet, September 20, 2014". Retrieved October 4, 2016.

101.Jump up ^ Mike S. Schaefer; et al. "Mike S. Schaefer et al., "Selling Science 2.0", Public Understanding of Science, 2016". Retrieved October 4, 2016.

102.^ Jump up to: a b c Hunter, Andrea (February 2015). "Crowdfunding independent and freelance journalism: Negotiating journalistic norms of autonomy and objectivity". New Media & Society. 17 (2): 272–288. doi:10.1177/1461444814558915.

103.^ Jump up to: a b Aitamurto, Tanja (August 2011). "THE IMPACT OF CROWDFUNDING ON JOURNALISM". Journalism Practice. 5 (4): 429–445. doi:10.1080/17512786.2010.551018.

104.Jump up ^ "Spot.us is going away, but its legacy inspires new chapters of crowdfunding playbook". Public Insight Network. Retrieved 2017-04-20.

105.Jump up ^ "Spot.us is going away, but its legacy inspires new chapters of crowdfunding playbook".

106.Jump up ^ Jian, Lian; Usher, Nikki (January 2014). "Crowd-Funded Journalism". Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 19 (2): 155–170. doi:10.1111/jcc4.12051.

107.Jump up ^ Bank, World (2013). "Crowdfunding's Potential for the Developing World".

108.Jump up ^ "Crowdfunding in a Canadian Context" (PDF). Canada Media Fund. Retrieved February 12, 2013.

109.Jump up ^ Prive, Tanya (December 5, 2012). "You've Just Crowdfunded Your Way to Success – Now What?". Forbes. Retrieved December 5, 2012.

110.Jump up ^ "Gigaom: What crowdfunding means for the VC business". Retrieved October 15, 2012.

111.^ Jump up to: a b "Oxford Dictionary Definition of Crowdfunding". Retrieved July 23, 2014.

112.Jump up ^ Isenberg, Daniel (April 23, 2012). "The Road to Crowdfunding Hell – Daniel Isenberg – Harvard Business Review". Blogs.hbr.org. Retrieved August 19, 2012.

113.Jump up ^ Jenna Wortham (September 17, 2012). "Success of Crowdfunding Puts Pressure on Entrepreneurs". The New York Times. Retrieved September 18, 2012.

114.Jump up ^ Christopher Mims [1], Wall Street Journal, 7 December 2015

115.Jump up ^ Caldbeck, Ryan (2012-04-01). "3 Reasons Crowdfunding Is Good For Investors". Seeking Alpha. Retrieved 2016-11-30.

116.Jump up ^ Agrawal, Ajay; Catalini, Christian; Goldfarb, Avi (2015-06-01). "Crowdfunding: Geography, Social Networks, and the Timing of Investment Decisions". Journal of Economics

 

                Hope this helps.

 

Peter Donahue& Management Strategy. 24 (2): 253–274. doi:10.1111/jems.12093. ISSN 1530-9134.


Re: financing for jaws

Peter Donahue
 

Hello Jenni and everyone,

We were told the same thing. IN our case the cost would be around $400.00 per computer. Since there are two of us who use Jaws on multiple devices we need two copies so it's double what you were quoted.

Peter Donahue who along with wife Mary embraced various income-producing vehicles to keep up with the cost of buying and maintaining assistive technology.

-----Original Message-----
From: main@jfw.groups.io [mailto:main@jfw.groups.io] On Behalf Of Jenni Kent
Sent: Saturday, November 18, 2017 10:16 AM
To: main@jfw.groups.io
Subject: Re: financing for jaws

for both the upgrade and the sma its going to be $360 thats what they told me.


On 11/17/2017 6:42 PM, Randy Barnett wrote:
It should only cost you 120.00. 240.00 at most.
On 11/17/2017 4:38 PM, Jenni Kent wrote:
no i am on jaws 17


On 11/17/2017 4:40 PM, netbat66 wrote:
what version are you on now?
are you saying you are 6 upgrades behind?
a s m a is $200 for two pro jaws upgrades.
$120 for two home jaws upgrades.
check here.
https://www.freedomscientific.com/Products/UpgradeAndSMARenewal


-----Original Message----- From: Jenni Kent
Sent: Friday, November 17, 2017 1:21 PM
To: main@jfw.groups.io
Subject: financing for jaws

Hi,

I am trying to upgrade my jaws and get an sma I live in Iowa In
Missouri
there was the tap-i program that paid for assistive tech for you every
few years so you could access the internet. Now I am stuck because I
need this and don't know a way to get it i wish fs had a payment plan
for jfw so people could pay for jaws and an sma I could do that but
this
six hundred bucks all at once crap is rediculous.










Re: financing for jaws

Jenni Kent
 

for both the upgrade and the sma its going to be $360 thats what they told me.

On 11/17/2017 6:42 PM, Randy Barnett wrote:
It should only cost you 120.00. 240.00 at most.
On 11/17/2017 4:38 PM, Jenni Kent wrote:
no i am on jaws 17


On 11/17/2017 4:40 PM, netbat66 wrote:
what version are you on now?
are you saying you are 6 upgrades behind?
a s m a is $200 for two pro jaws upgrades.
$120 for two home jaws upgrades.
check here.
https://www.freedomscientific.com/Products/UpgradeAndSMARenewal


-----Original Message----- From: Jenni Kent
Sent: Friday, November 17, 2017 1:21 PM
To: main@jfw.groups.io
Subject: financing for jaws

Hi,

I am trying to upgrade my jaws and get an sma I live in Iowa In Missouri
there was the tap-i program that paid for assistive tech for you every
few years so you could access the internet. Now I am stuck because I
need this and don't know a way to get it i wish fs had a payment plan
for jfw so people could pay for jaws and an sma I could do that but this
six hundred bucks all at once crap is rediculous.










Re: scrolling up a command window

John Covici
 

Unfortunately, your method yields blank when I use up or down arrow
after selecting scroll under edit.

Thanks again.

On Sat, 18 Nov 2017 05:28:54 -0500,
David Bailes wrote:

[1 <text/plain; utf-8 (quoted-printable)>]
[2 <text/html; utf-8 (quoted-printable)>]
Hi John,
there are a couple of ways of scrolling using the keyboard.
The first is to use page up/down.
The second provides finer adjustment. Press alt+spacebar to open the window's menu, open the edit sub menu, and choose scroll. You can now use up/down arrows to scroll. When you've finished scrolling, press Esc to return back to the
normal mode.

David.

On Fri, Nov 17, 2017 at 07:17 pm, John Covici wrote:

Hi. Is there any way in JAWS to scroll up past whats on the current
command window -- I want to access the scroll up arrow at the top of
the window and the scroll down arrow at the bottom.

Thanks in advance for any suggestions.

--
Your life is like a penny. You're going to lose it. The question is:
How do
you spend it?

John Covici
covici@ccs.covici.com

--
Your life is like a penny. You're going to lose it. The question is:
How do
you spend it?

John Covici
covici@ccs.covici.com


Re: JAWS 2018 QUESTION

Dave...
 

No. Your JAWS 18 is already compatible with Windows 10, so installing JAWS
2018 now will not affect that process. BTW the JAWS 2018 on the FS web site
download page is already one version higher than your DVD. You could just as
well put away that DVD for archival purposes and just download the latest
JAWS 2018 to install.

Dave
Oregonian, woodworker, Engineer, Musician, and Pioneer

----- Original Message -----
From: "Shirley Tracy" <stracy5@tampabay.rr.com>
To: <main@jfw.groups.io>
Sent: Saturday, November 18, 2017 06:54
Subject: JAWS 2018 QUESTION


Hi everyone,

I just received my JAWS 2018 disk. I'm running Windows 7, and currently I am
using JAWS 18. Are there any benefits to installing the new disk as opposed
to just waiting until I eventually go to Windows 10?

Thank you for your opinions.

Shirley


JAWS 2018 QUESTION

Shirley Tracy
 

Hi everyone,

I just received my JAWS 2018 disk. I'm running Windows 7, and currently I am using JAWS 18. Are there any benefits to installing the new disk as opposed to just waiting until I eventually go to Windows 10?

Thank you for your opinions.

Shirley


Re: scrolling up a command window

David Bailes
 

Hi John,
there are a couple of ways of scrolling using the keyboard.
The first is to use page up/down.
The second provides finer adjustment. Press alt+spacebar to open the window's menu, open the edit sub menu, and choose scroll. You can now use up/down arrows to scroll. When you've finished scrolling, press Esc to return back to the normal mode.

David.


On Fri, Nov 17, 2017 at 07:17 pm, John Covici wrote:
Hi. Is there any way in JAWS to scroll up past whats on the current
command window -- I want to access the scroll up arrow at the top of
the window and the scroll down arrow at the bottom.

Thanks in advance for any suggestions.

--
Your life is like a penny. You're going to lose it. The question is:
How do
you spend it?

John Covici
covici@...


Re: problems With My JFW screenreader

Ibrahim Ajayi
 

Hi:
Thanks for your response.
I use JAWS 16. I have the latest version of firefox, which I
downloaded a week ago. I use windows 7-32 bit.
Talking about NVDA, I have it on my computer. In fact I've been using
it since 2011. The problem I have with NVDA is the default speech,
callled ESpeak. I just don't understand the speech. I used to use an
old synthesizer known as viavoice outloud, but it no longer works
effectively with the internet. It is outdated. I am also not used to
narrator. I am not familiar with the synthesizer. It is too low, and
I have some hearing impairment.
So, I make do with JAWS demo copy.
I forgot to ask about bookmarks on firefox. I've been having problems
lately removing saved bookmarks. When I activate the edit this
bookmark link, the screen reader JAWS crashes, and the computer itself
crashes for some time, and sometimes could cause disfunctioning.
Again, talking about chrome, can I sync my bookmarks in to chrome? and
how do I do it.
Hope to read a response again.
Thanks and kind regards.
From Ibrahim.

On 11/16/17, Sieghard Weitzel <sieghard@live.ca> wrote:
Hi Ibrahim,

Can you let us know what version of Windows and what version of Firefox you
are using? There are issues with the latest version of Firefox which is
version 57 and which is also called Firefox Quantum.
If you are using the demo version of Jaws, you might want to consider
downloading Jaws 2018 or at least Jaws 18, bboth of these versions work well
with Google Chrome and I have now made this my default browser because it is
fast and works well in most situations.
Lastly, have you heard of NVDA (Non Visual Desktop Access)? It is a free
screenreader and once you learn how to use it you might find it does all you
want, here the link to the NV Access website and some information from their
website:
https://www.nvaccess.org

NVDA (NonVisual Desktop Access) is a free “screen reader” which enables
blind and vision impaired people to use computers. It reads the text on the
screen in a computerised voice. You can control what is read to you by
moving the cursor to the relevant area of text with a mouse or the arrows on
your keyboard.
NVDA can also convert the text into braille if the computer user owns a
device called a “braille display”.
NVDA provides the key to education and employment for many blind people. It
also provides access to social networking, online shopping, banking and
news.
NVDA works with Microsoft Windows. You can download it to your PC, or to a
USB stick which you can use with any computer.
Normally screen readers are expensive, making them unaffordable for many
blind people. NVDA is free. It’s been downloaded 70,000+ times, in 43
languages.

-----Original Message-----
From: main@jfw.groups.io [mailto:main@jfw.groups.io] On Behalf Of Ibrahim
Ajayi
Sent: Tuesday, November 14, 2017 8:54 AM
To: main@jfw.groups.io
Subject: problems With My JFW screenreader

HI good people:
I am having problems with my JAWS screen reader. The problem started not
too long ago. I find it difficult using the screen reader on Mozilla
firefox. Often times when I am browsing, sometimes going through my gmail
inbox, the screen reader crashes suddenly, and stops work for some time only
to resume after some time. Some times, when I want to open a website, the
screnreader crashes, shuts down the screen reader, and could even distort
the functioning of the computer itself.
Secondly, when I do a screenshot of a webpage with the print screen key, i
am told when I send it down, that the screenshot is not visible.
Please has anyone ever had any of these problems? if yes how did you go
aboutsolving it. What is the solution.
I use JAWS 16.1.4448, a demo version.
I am from Africa, and I cannot afford the hundreds of Dollars that the
screen reader costs.
Looking forward to reading a response.
I am Ibrahim Ajayi from Nigeria.







Re: scrolling up a command window

John Covici
 

Unfortunately this does not work -- I am actually using powershell, if
that makes any difference, but I can't even get to the graphics at the
top of the window, like minimize, etc. I think the scroll arrow is
just below those items.

On Fri, 17 Nov 2017 23:15:56 -0500,
Bill White wrote:

Hi, John. Try putting JAWS in Unrestricted mode with the JAWS Cursor Key
followed by JAWS key plus R until it says Unrestricted. This way you have
access to the full screen.

Bill White
Billwhite92701@dslextreme.com

-----Original Message-----
From: main@jfw.groups.io [mailto:main@jfw.groups.io] On Behalf Of John
Covici
Sent: Friday, November 17, 2017 7:17 PM
To: main@jfw.groups.io
Subject: scrolling up a command window

Hi. Is there any way in JAWS to scroll up past whats on the current
command window -- I want to access the scroll up arrow at the top of
the window and the scroll down arrow at the bottom.

Thanks in advance for any suggestions.

--
Your life is like a penny. You're going to lose it. The question is:
How do
you spend it?

John Covici
covici@ccs.covici.com








--
Your life is like a penny. You're going to lose it. The question is:
How do
you spend it?

John Covici
covici@ccs.covici.com


Re: Uninstaling JAWS17

Mike B. <mb69mach1@...>
 


Hi David,
 
Being a 1 handed typist, maybe what's below will help with your keyboard navigation:
Insert Key Mode:
Try the following to turn the Insert Key Mode on / off.  This only works in
the Settings Center Default All Applications.
1. Open the Settings Center in either of these 2 ways.
A. Press, Insert / Jaws Key + 6, on the number row above the main keyboard.
B. Press, Insert / Jaws Key + F2, to open the, Jaws Manager, arrow down,
Settings Center, & press enter.
With the Settings Center open press, control, shift , + D, to open the
Settings Center Default All Applications.
2. Arrow down to, Users, right arrow to open.
3. Arrow down to, Insert Key Mode, to check or uncheck this box.  Here's the
explanation of this option:
When selected, the INSERT key functions as a sticky key. Any key pressed
immediately after pressing the INSERT key is treated as if it were pressed
in combination with the INSERT key. This check box is cleared by default.
 
Sticky Keys:
Sticky Keys, can be turned on / off by pressing the, Shift key, 5 times, quickly.  If you press the Shifft Key 5 times quickly
you will get a dialogue stating the following:
Sticky Keys
Do you want to turn on Sticky Keys?
Sticky Keys lets you use the SHIFT, CTRL, ALT, or Windows Logo keys by
pressing one key
at a time. The keyboard shortcut to turn on Sticky Keys is to press the
SHIFT key 5 times.
Go to the Ease of Access Center to disable the keyboard shortcut
Yes No
Take care.  Mike.  Dodgers, try again next year!
Sent from my iBarstool.
Arguing with a woman is like reading a software license agreement.  In the end you have to ignore everything, & click I agree.

----- Original Message -----
Sent: Friday, November 17, 2017 7:53 PM
Subject: Re: Uninstaling JAWS17

Hello Mike:
 
Use one-handed keyboard, but it does have the “apps” key.  Thanks for info, and I’ll give the uninstall procedure a try.
 
Don’t think I ever saw Dodgers, but saw a few sox  games at Fenway pahk.
 
Regards,
 
 
 
DSP
 
 
 
From: Mike B.
Sent: Friday, November 17, 2017 6:36 PM
Subject: Re: Uninstaling JAWS17
 
Hi David,
 
Also called the Applications key, & is located directly to the left of the right side Control key.  The keystroke, Shift + F10, will open the context menu as well.  Note:  Some keyboards do not have an applications key.
Take care.  Mike.  Dodgers, try again next year!
Sent from my iBarstool.
Arguing with a woman is like reading a software license agreement.  In the end you have to ignore everything, & click I agree.
----- Original Message -----
Sent: Friday, November 17, 2017 2:54 PM
Subject: Re: Uninstaling JAWS17
 
Hi all:
 
Not to be too “dim”, but which is the “context” key?
 
Thank you,
 
David(techno-challenged) Pearson
 
Sent: Friday, November 17, 2017 12:31 PM
Subject: Re: Uninstaling JAWS17
 

Hdere is the proceedure:

1.       Press the windows key and type control and press enter.

2.       Go to programs and features and press enter.

3.       Arrow down until you get to Jaws 17.

4.       Press the context key and arrow down once and press u and follow the prompts.

 

Hope this helps.

Pastor Gil

From: main@jfw.groups.io [mailto:main@jfw.groups.io] On Behalf Of Cletus Hostetler
Sent: Friday, November 17, 2017 8:05 AM
To: main@jfw.groups.io
Subject: Uninstaling JAWS17

 

I have installed JAWS2018. What is the procedure to remove JAWS17?

cletus Hostetler


Virus-free. www.avast.com


Re: Crowd Funding

Mike B. <mb69mach1@...>
 


Hi Peter,
 
I'm all for donating to & for people that truly need help, but this Crowd Funding thing you speak of is something I've never heard of, & that doesn't mean it doesn't exist, but it only means I've never heard anything about it!  Who runs it?  Who manages the donations?  Does 100% of the donations go to the intended, or do they take a percentage off the top to cover costs, & is that info divulged?  I've only asked a few questions, but you see my point.  I personally am sick of donating  to organizations that say that they will do this & that, but when it all comes down to it most of the money is eaten up by bullshit!
 
You said:
"If anyone wants to start calling widely used means of raising funds for personal or business matters begging watch your
step with us! Otherwise you will be asked to cover the cost of buying my wife's El Braille 40 when it comes out and upgrading our versions of Jaws. End quote.
 
Intimidating people with this kind of dumb ass threat isn't going to put people in your corner!  What are you going to do, use donated funds to sue people?!
Take care.  Mike.  Dodgers, try again next year!

Sent from my iBarstool.
Arguing with a woman is like reading a software license agreement.  In the end you have to ignore everything, & click I agree.

----- Original Message -----
Sent: Friday, November 17, 2017 7:44 PM
Subject: Crowd Funding

Good evening everyone,

CrowdFunding is widely used throughout many segments of society including those who are employed. It is not a form of begging and is not promoted as such. Rather it could be used as a way to raise public awareness of the existence of assistive technology and what users of this technology must do to cover the cost of keeping it up.

If folks can use crowd funding to raise money for needed surgery and treatments, funding to achieve educational and vocational goals and for many other purposes why not tap into this means of creating revenue to cover the cost of buying and maintaining assistive technology. Large corporations also use crowd funding to start and grow their existing business ventures or to start new ones. No one calls them beggars.

I used to hear this kind of garbage when I was a street performer. Those making such statements about this occupation are either dead, still broke and living on public assistance, or had to move back in with mmom and dad. Mary and I tapped into various means to raise funding for the things we need without going to voke rehab or some other public assistance program and are closer to achieving financial independence. If anyone wants to start calling widely used means of raising funds for personal or business matters begging watch your step with us! Otherwise you will be asked to cover the cost of buying my wife's El Braille 40 when it comes out and upgrading our versions of Jaws. Now let's tap the crowd to raise the needed funds for keeping our assistive technology and to raise awareness of how it can benefit those with disabilities including the blind. All the best.

Peter Donahue



-----Original Message-----
From: main@jfw.groups.io [mailto:main@jfw.groups.io] On Behalf Of Kelly Pierce
Sent: Friday, November 17, 2017 5:27 PM
To: main@jfw.groups.io
Subject: Re: financing for jaws, Why Not CrowdFunding?

Another way besides begging to raise needed funds is to find a job or start a small business.  Computers and the Internet enable many to work at home.

Kelly
Another way besides begging to raise needed funds is to find a job or start a small business.  Computers and the Internet enable many to work at home.

Kelly




On 11/17/17, Peter Donahue <pdonahue2@...> wrote:
> Hello,
>
> We're dealing with the same situation here. Perhaps it's time some of
> us tried CrowdFunding as a way to raise needed funds to cover these expenses.
> People raise funds for all kinds of personal and corporate projects
> and individual needs this way. It's time we tapped the power of the
> crowd to help us cover the cost of buying and upgrading assistive
> technology as an alternative to voke rehab and other public funding
> sources. We plan to launch our own crowdfunding site to upgrade our
> assistive technology by year's end. If someone beats us to it that's wonderful! All the best.
>
> Peter Donahue
>
>
>
> -----Original Message-----
> From: main@jfw.groups.io [mailto:main@jfw.groups.io] On Behalf Of
> Jenni Kent
> Sent: Friday, November 17, 2017 3:21 PM
> To: main@jfw.groups.io
> Subject: financing for jaws
>
> Hi,
>
> I am trying to upgrade my jaws and get an sma I live in Iowa In
> Missouri there was the tap-i program that paid for assistive tech for
> you every few years so you could access the internet. Now I am stuck
> because I need this and don't know a way to get it i wish fs had a
> payment plan for jfw so people could pay for jaws and an sma I could
> do that but this six hundred bucks all at once crap is rediculous.
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>







Re: scrolling up a command window

Bill White <billwhite92701@...>
 

Hi, John. Try putting JAWS in Unrestricted mode with the JAWS Cursor Key
followed by JAWS key plus R until it says Unrestricted. This way you have
access to the full screen.

Bill White
Billwhite92701@dslextreme.com

-----Original Message-----
From: main@jfw.groups.io [mailto:main@jfw.groups.io] On Behalf Of John
Covici
Sent: Friday, November 17, 2017 7:17 PM
To: main@jfw.groups.io
Subject: scrolling up a command window

Hi. Is there any way in JAWS to scroll up past whats on the current
command window -- I want to access the scroll up arrow at the top of
the window and the scroll down arrow at the bottom.

Thanks in advance for any suggestions.

--
Your life is like a penny. You're going to lose it. The question is:
How do
you spend it?

John Covici
covici@ccs.covici.com