To answer your question, I believe the answer is "no." The "favorites as a central file" concept was dropped a long time ago, even by Microsoft, and bookmarks tend to be maintained by their respective browsers. That being said, the first thing that shows at the top of the Chrome Bookmarks Manager page is the bookmarks search. If you need to filter, and you use names for your bookmarks that allow you to zero in with a word or two, you can get down to a single bookmark very easily then just activate it from within bookmarks manager. That's actually what I teach people to do, particularly those who really don't organize them in any folder hierarchy. Of course, I find that I use bookmarks far more seldom these days with the "look through search history" function that's a part of the URL box. With just a few characters of the site name or something else distinctive what I'm looking for is generally in the short list that one can just down arrow through to select from, and presented from most recently visited to older.
If you're using Windows 10, then Settings, Apps, Default Apps Pane. Search for Web Browser. Your current default web browser will be listed and whatever it is it is a button. If you activate it you will be presented with a list of installed web browsers on your machine and can choose whichever one you wish.
If you're using an earlier version of Windows, then Control Panel, Default Programs Item, Default Programs link once the item is opened.
Brian - Windows 10 Home, 64-Bit, Version 1809, Build 17763
Explanations exist; they have existed for all time; there is always a well-known solution to every human problem — neat, plausible, and wrong.
~ H.L. Mencken, AKA The Sage of Baltimore