Yes, it can be done without sighted help if you have sufficient patience. With Windows 10 Version 1809 (and I think this feature came in with 1803) you can fire up Narrator during the install process (CTRL+WinKey+Enter) and it will tell you what's going on. You do have to be at the stage where it can be activated, which is often several minutes after the whole process has begun.
I would very strongly suggest using one of the "bootable media" methods, whether that's using the Media Creation Tool to directly create a bootable USB drive or to download the ISO, then burn the ISO to optical media or transfer it to bootable USB using Rufus or similar.
I will presume you take regular full system image backups along with separate user data backups. Definitely do both prior to undertaking this task as you want to be able to recover quickly and easily were something horrible to go wrong. I have not had anything horrible go wrong using this technique, and I've used it way more than once, but this is a "better safe than sorry" sort of situation.
Given the additional information you've offered I would definitely recommend doing the "install-over install" in hopes that it will correct the issues identified.
Brian - Windows 10 Home, 64-Bit, Version 1809, Build 17763
Explanations exist; they have existed for all time; there is always a well-known solution to every human problem — neat, plausible, and wrong.
~ H.L. Mencken, AKA The Sage of Baltimore