The "Users must enter a user name and password to use this computer" simply denotes how you want the default setup behavior for accounts to work.
When I configured the test local account (which was created as a standard account) from my own administrator account I was forced to enter a password for that account when creating it. When I logged in using it, I was able to get rid of that password using the technique I documented last night.
With the advent of Win7 local user accounts were required to use the computer, but if there's only one account on the machine and it is not password protected you log straight in to that user's desktop.
Win 8/8.1 was its own mess with the Metro screen, but that was when the push toward creating a Microsoft Account as the primary login mechanism began. Local accounts can still be created, though.
Windows 10 continues the effort to get people to use Microsoft Accounts, and if you use one there is no way to have a password-less account. The only way to accomplish this is with a local account, so if you were able to remove your password it's definitely a local account. If it's the only account on the machine it's also certainly got to have administrator privileges, which you can confirm by going to User Accounts settings and having a look at the account type.